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Matching feature classes by similar name for map automation

Matching feature classes by similar name for map automation


I was working on this a bit ago and had something which I thought worked however, it does not seem to be working at the moment. What I'm trying to do is match feature classes having similar files. One will be a buffered version of the original and have 'Buffer_' in the name the other will simply be the original feature class. I'd like to then bring the buffered version and original feature class into a .mxd, symbolize both, create a legend, save the .mxd and export the map to a pdf. Everything is working as it should with the exception of getting the buffered feature class to match it's original.

I am able to bring the buffered feature class into the .mxd, rename the .mxd to the name of the buffered feature class. I am also able to bring in an original feature class to the map document however, it is not the original feature class which corresponds to the buffered feature class.

The portion of my code which attempts to match the 2 feature classes looks like:

buffered = arcpy.ListFeatureClasses('Buffer_*') original = [buffer.split("Buffer_")[-1] for buffer in buffered] fccount = -1 buffered.sort() for fc in buffered: fccount += 1 print fc + " " + str(fccount) #REPLACE sandbox WITH tip_2014 fcclean = fc.replace('tBuffer_',") print "fcclean = " + fcclean copymxd = templatemxd.saveACopy(r"map output directory" + fcclean + ".mxd") print "Saved Copy" mxd = arcpy.mapping.MapDocument(r"map output directory" + fcclean + ".mxd") print "MXD set" df = arcpy.mapping.ListDataFrames(mxd,"*")[0] buffLayer = arcpy.mapping.Layer(buffered[fccount]) orgLayer = arcpy.mapping.Layer(original[fccount])

I have a feeling I am missing something with the count but am puzzled as to what. Thanks for any help you can provide with this issue.


You should be able to use the same index for bothbuffLayerandorgLayer-- the problem was that you sortedbufferedafter creatingoriginal, and so the lists would no longer correctly match up.

buffered = arcpy.ListFeatureClasses("Buffer_*") buffered.sort() original = [buffer.split("Buffer_")[-1] for buffer in buffered]

Separate from your actual problem, you might consider using Python's slice function instead of split to drop the prefix:

original = [buffer[7:] for buffer in buffered]

I got this to work using a second count for the original feature classes. Here's what my final code ended up looking like(naturally you"l have to set your work space and layer symbology variables, etc.:

original = [buffer.split("Buffer_")[-1] for buffer in buffered] fccount = -1 ofccount = -1 buffered.sort() original.sort() for fc in buffered: fccount += 1 print fc + " " + str(fccount) fcclean = fc.replace('tBuffer_',") print "fcclean = " + fcclean copymxd = templatemxd.saveACopy(r"map output directory" + fcclean + ".mxd") print "Saved Copy" mxd = arcpy.mapping.MapDocument(r"map output directory" + fcclean + ".mxd") print "MXD set" df = arcpy.mapping.ListDataFrames(mxd,"*")[0] ofccount +=1 buffLayer = arcpy.mapping.Layer(buffered[fccount]) orgLayer = arcpy.mapping.Layer(original[ofccount])

The remainder of the code which I have not included sets symbology and exports to PDF.


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Introduction to Surface Matching

Cameras and similar devices with the capability of sensation of 3D structure are becoming more common. Thus, using depth and intensity information for matching 3D objects (or parts) are of crucial importance for computer vision. Applications range from industrial control to guiding everyday actions for visually impaired people. The task in recognition and pose estimation in range images aims to identify and localize a queried 3D free-form object by matching it to the acquired database.

From an industrial perspective, enabling robots to automatically locate and pick up randomly placed and oriented objects from a bin is an important challenge in factory automation, replacing tedious and heavy manual labor. A system should be able to recognize and locate objects with a predefined shape and estimate the position with the precision necessary for a gripping robot to pick it up. This is where vision guided robotics takes the stage. Similar tools are also capable of guiding robots (and even people) through unstructured environments, leading to automated navigation. These properties make 3D matching from point clouds a ubiquitous necessity. Within this context, I will now describe the OpenCV implementation of a 3D object recognition and pose estimation algorithm using 3D features.


Protocols

Rather than trying to fit all of the IoT Protocols on top of existing architecture models like OSI Model, we have broken the protocols into the following layers to provide some level of organization:

  1. Infrastructure (ex: 6LowPAN, IPv4/IPv6, RPL)
  2. Identification (ex: EPC, uCode, IPv6, URIs)
  3. Comms / Transport (ex: Wifi, Bluetooth, LPWAN)
  4. Discovery (ex: Physical Web, mDNS, DNS-SD)
  5. Data Protocols (ex: MQTT, CoAP, AMQP, Websocket, Node)
  6. Device Management (ex: TR-069, OMA-DM)
  7. Semantic (ex: JSON-LD, Web Thing Model)
  8. Multi-layer Frameworks (ex: Alljoyn, IoTivity, Weave, Homekit)

Security
Industry Vertical (Connected Home, Industrial, etc)

Infrastructure

IPv6 - "IPv6, is an Internet Layer protocol for packet-switched internetworking and provides end-to-end datagram transmission across multiple IP networks.

6LoWPAN - "6LoWPAN is an acronym of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks. It is an adaption layer for IPv6 over IEEE802.15.4 links. This protocol operates only in the 2.4 GHz frequency range with 250 kbps transfer rate."

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) - A simple OSI transport layer protocol for client/server network applications based on Internet Protocol (IP). UDP is the main alternative to TCP and one of the oldest network protocols in existence, introduced in 1980. UDP is often used in applications specially tuned for real-time performance.

- QUIC (Quick UDP Internet Connections, pronounced quick) supports a set of multiplexed connections between two endpoints over User Datagram Protocol (UDP), and was designed to provide security protection equivalent to TLS/SSL, along with reduced connection and transport latency, and bandwidth estimation in each direction to avoid congestion.

- Aeron - Efficient reliable UDP unicast, UDP multicast, and IPC message transport.

uIP - The uIP is an open source TCP/IP stack capable of being used with tiny 8- and 16-bit microcontrollers. It was initially developed by Adam Dunkels of the "Networked Embedded Systems" group at the Swedish Institute of Computer Science, licensed under a BSD style license, and further developed by a wide group of developers.

DTLS (Datagram Transport Layer) - "The DTLS protocol provides communications privacy for datagram protocols. The protocol allows client/server applications to communicate in a way that is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, or message forgery. The DTLS protocol is based on the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol and provides equivalent security guarantees."

ROLL / RPL (IPv6 routing for low power/lossy networks)

NanoIP
"NanoIP, which stands for the nano Internet Protocol, is a concept that was created to bring Internet-like networking services to embedded and sensor devices, without the overhead of TCP/IP. NanoIP was designed with minimal overheads, wireless networking, and local addressing in mind."

Content-Centric Networking (CCN) - Technical Overview
"Next-gen network architecture to solve challenges in content distribution scalability, mobility, and security.
CCN directly routes and delivers named pieces of content at the packet level of the network, enabling automatic and application-neutral caching in memory wherever it’s located in the network. The result? Efficient and effective delivery of content wherever and whenever it is needed. Since the architecture enables these caching effects as an automatic side effect of packet delivery, memory can be used without building expensive application-level caching services."

Time Synchronized Mesh Protocol (TSMP)
A communications protocol for self-organizing networks of wireless devices called motes. TSMP devices stay synchronized to each other and communicate in timeslots, similar to other TDM (time-division multiplexing) systems.

Discovery

mDNS (multicast Domain Name System) - Resolves host names to IP addresses within small networks that do not include a local name server.

Physical Web - The Physical Web enables you to see a list of URLs being broadcast by objects in the environment around you with a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacon.

HyperCat - An open, lightweight JSON-based hypermedia catalogue format for exposing collections of URIs.

UPnP (Universal Plug and Play) - Now managed by the Open Connectivity Foundation is a set of networking protocols that permits networked devices to seamlessly discover each other's presence on the network and establish functional network services for data sharing, communications, and entertainment.

Data Protocols

MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport)
"The MQTT protocol enables a publish/subscribe messaging model in an extremely lightweight way. It is useful for connections with remote locations where a small code footprint is required and/or network bandwidth is at a premium."
-Additional resources

MQTT-SN (MQTT For Sensor Networks) - An open and lightweight publish/subscribe protocol designed specifically for machine-to-machine and mobile applications

CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol)
"CoAP is an application layer protocol that is intended for use in resource-constrained internet devices, such as WSN nodes. CoAP is designed to easily translate to HTTP for simplified integration with the web, while also meeting specialized requirements such as multicast support, very low overhead, and simplicity. The CoRE group has proposed the following features for CoAP: RESTful protocol design minimizing the complexity of mapping with HTTP, Low header overhead and parsing complexity, URI and content-type support, Support for the discovery of resources provided by known CoAP services. Simple subscription for a resource, and resulting push notifications, Simple caching based on max-age."
-Additional resources

- SMCP — A C-based CoAP stack which is suitable for embedded environments. Features include: Support draft-ietf-core-coap-13, Fully asynchronous I/O, Supports both BSD sockets and UIP.

STOMP - The Simple Text Oriented Messaging Protocol

XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol)
"An open technology for real-time communication, which powers a wide range of applications including instant messaging, presence, multi-party chat, voice and video calls, collaboration, lightweight middleware, content syndication, and generalized routing of XML data."
-Additional resources

- XMPP-IoT
"In the same manor as XMPP silently has created people to people communication interoperable. We are aiming to make communication machine to people and machine to machine interoperable."

Mihini/M3DA
"The Mihini agent is a software component that acts as a mediator between an M2M server and the applications running on an embedded gateway. M3DA is a protocol optimized for the transport of binary M2M data. It is made available in the Mihini project both for means of Device Management, by easing the manipulation and synchronization of a device's data model, and for means of Asset Management, by allowing user applications to exchange typed data/commands back and forth with an M2M server, in a way that optimizes the use of bandwidth"

AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol)
"An open standard application layer protocol for message-oriented middleware. The defining features of AMQP are message orientation, queuing, routing (including point-to-point and publish-and-subscribe), reliability and security."
- Additional Resources

DDS (Data-Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems)
"The first open international middleware standard directly addressing publish-subscribe communications for real-time and embedded systems."

JMS (Java Message Service) - A Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients.

LLAP (lightweight local automation protocol)
"LLAP is a simple short message that is sent between inteligent objects using normal text, it's not like TCP/IP, bluetooth, zigbee, 6lowpan, WiFi etc which achieve at a low level "how" to move data around. This means LLAP can run over any communication medium. The three strengths of LLAP are, it'll run on anything now, anything in the future and it's easily understandable by humans."

LWM2M (Lightweight M2M)
"Lightweight M2M (LWM2M) is a system standard in the Open Mobile Alliance. It includes DTLS, CoAP, Block, Observe, SenML and Resource Directory and weaves them into a device-server interface along with an Object structure."

SSI (Simple Sensor Interface)
"a simple communications protocol designed for data transfer between computers or user terminals and smart sensors"

Reactive Streams
"A standard for asynchronous stream processing with non-blocking back pressure on the JVM."

HTTP/2 - Enables a more efficient use of network resources and a reduced perception of latency by introducing header field compression and allowing multiple concurrent exchanges on the same connection.

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), JSON/XML, WebHooks, Jelastic, MongoDB

Websocket
The WebSocket specification—developed as part of the HTML5 initiative—introduced the WebSocket JavaScript interface, which defines a full-duplex single socket connection over which messages can be sent between client and server. The WebSocket standard simplifies much of the complexity around bi-directional web communication and connection management.

A list of IoT software projects like Contiki, Riot OS, etc can be found here.

Communication / Transport layer

WirelessHart
"WirelessHART technology provides a robust wireless protocol for the full range of process measurement, control, and asset management applications."

DigiMesh
"DigiMesh is a proprietary peer-to-peer networking topology for use in wireless end-point connectivity solutions.

ISA100.11a
"ISA100.11a is a wireless networking technology standard developed by the International Society of Automation (ISA). The official description is "Wireless Systems for Industrial Automation: Process Control and Related Application"

IEEE 802.15.4
IEEE 802.15.4 is a standard which specifies the physical layer and media access control for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs). It is maintained by the IEEE 802.15 working group. It is the basis for the ZigBee,ISA100.11a, WirelessHART, and MiWi specifications, each of which further extends the standard by developing the upper layers which are not defined in IEEE 802.15.4. Alternatively, it can be used with 6LoWPAN and standard Internet protocols to build a wireless embedded Internet.

NFC
Based on the standard ISO/IEC 18092:2004, using inductive coupled devices at a center frequency of13.56 MHz. The data rate is up to 424 kbps and the rangeis with a few meters short compared to the wireless sensornetworks.

ANT
ANT is a proprietary wireless sensor network technology featuring a wireless communications protocol stack that enables semiconductor radios operating in the 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical allocation of the RF spectrum ("ISM band") to communicate by establishing standard rules for co-existence, data representation, signalling, authentication and error detection.

Bluetooth
Bluetooth works in the 2.4 GHz ISM band and uses frequency hopping. With a data rate up to 3 Mbps and maximum range of 100m. Each application type which can use Bluetooth has its own profile.

Eddystone - A protocol specification that defines a Bluetooth low energy (BLE) message format for proximity beacon messages.

ZigBee
The ZigBee protocol uses the 802.15.4 standard and operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency range with 250 kbps. The maximum number of nodes in the network is 1024 with a range up to 200 meter. ZigBee can use 128 bit AES encryption.

EnOcean
EnOcean is a an energy harvesting wireless technology which works in the frequencies of 868 MHz for europe and 315 MHz for North America. The transmit range goes up to 30 meter in buildings and up to 300 meter outdoor.

WiMax
WiMax is based on the standard IEEE 802.16 and is intended for wireless metropolitan area networks. The range is different for fixed stations, where it can go up to 50 km and mobile devices with 5 to 15 km. WiMAx operates at frequencies between 2.5 GHz to 5.8 GHz with a transferrate of 40 Mbps.

LPWAN

Weightless
Weightless is a proposed proprietary open wireless technology standard for exchanging data between a base station and thousands of machines around it (using wavelength radio transmissions in unoccupied TV transmission channels) with high levels of security.

NB-IoT (Narrow-Band IoT) A technology being standardized by the 3GPP standards body

LTE-MTC (LTE-Machine Type Communication) - Standards-based family of technologies supports several technology categories, such as Cat-1 and CatM1, suitable for the IoT.

EC-GSM-IoT (Extended Coverage-GSM-IoT) - Enables new capabilities of existing cellular networks for LPWA (Low Power Wide Area) IoT applications. EC-GSM-IoT can be activated through new software deployed over a very large GSM footprint, adding even more coverage to serve IoT devices.

LoRaWAN - Network protocol intended for wireless battery operated Things in regional, national or global network.

RPMA (Random phase multiple access) A technology communication system employing direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) with multiple access.

Cellular: GPRS/2G/3G/4G cellular

- View a more complete overview of IoT communication and technologies here.


Integrify

Integrify employs a service-based approach that includes support and consulting for best practices and process improvements. The software has been developed for ease of use and uses a drag-and-drop editor for most workflows. All tools are browser based and available for any mobile device. True to their service-oriented model, the website features helpful workflow examples and a complete knowledge base for users. Enterprise upgrades are available for businesses with specific or complicated needs.

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A type specified by the ArgumentCompleterAttribute must implement this interface.

An object that can be used to execute a method on a threadpool thread while correctly managing system state, such as flowing ETW activities from the current thread to the threadpool thread.

This interface defines the set of functionality that must be implemented to directly execute an instance of a Cmdlet.

This interface defines the set of functionality that must be implemented to directly execute an instance of a Cmdlet. ICommandRuntime2 extends the ICommandRuntime interface by adding support for the informational data stream.

Implemented by exception classes which contain additional ErrorRecord information.

An interface that a Cmdlet or CmdletProvider must implement to indicate that it has dynamic parameters.

Interface to expose a job debugger.

Used by modules to provide a hooko to the engine for cleanup on removal w.r.t. compiled assembly being removed.

Used by Modules/Snapins to provide a hook to the engine for startup initialization w.r.t compiled assembly loading.

Allows dynamically generate set of values for ValidateSetAttribute.


Records and Pattern Matching for Instanceof Finalized in JDK 16

The final releases of records and the new pattern matching functionality for instanceof are planned for JDK 16. With these new features, boilerplate code can be reduced and code becomes less error-prone.

Both features were already available as a preview in JDK 14 and 15. They are slightly improved and should be available in JDK 16 whose release is planned for March 2021. If all goes to plan, then the new features will be available in JDK 17, the next long term support version, expected in September 2021.

Records are the Java version of named tuples - basically containers for an ordered sequence of elements. When using records, it's no longer possible to decouple the API and the representation - both are derived from the record declaration.

One of the main effects of this feature is that it reduces boilerplate code. Until now classes with constructors and methods like getters, setters, equals , toString and hashCode had to be written by hand. Some projects were using libraries such as Lombok to reduce the amount of boilerplate code. Unfortunately, Lombok needs extra support in the form of IDE plugins. The new records feature should make this process easier and less error-prone.

To get started, a record should be defined:

Records can be declared in a separate file or as part of another class. There are many use cases for records they can be used to return multiple values from a method, as compound keys in a map, or simply as data objects.

When a normal class is defined, then implicitly a default constructor is added. Records have similar behavior and implicitly contain a number of members:

  • Private fields for all components of the record.
  • Public accessor methods for all components of the record.
  • Constructor with arguments for all components of the record. This constructor is named the canonical constructor.
  • equals , toString , and hashCode methods with their implementation.

The record defined earlier doesn't contain any custom code, but it's possible to define explicit methods. It's even possible to explicitly declare the various implicitly added methods and the canonical constructor. For example, it's possible to create a custom toString method.

In JDK 14 the canonical constructor was required to be public. From JDK 15 onwards the implicit canonical constructor gets the same access modifier as the record class. When defining an explicit canonical constructor, the access modifier has to provide at least as much access as the record class.

As part of the change, the @Override annotation was changed as well. It can now be used to annotate an explicit accessor method in a record.

The Java 14 Feature Spotlight:Records, written by Brian Goetz, provides some more details and examples for records.

In regards to pattern matching for instanceof, verifying if an object was of a certain type and then using it was always a two-step process. First, instanceof was used to check if the argument was of the correct type and then the object was cast to that specific type. After that, object-specific methods can be called such as the pay() method on a Customer:

With the new pattern matching feature, it's possible to write the same functionality in a more compact form. In this case, the customer is the so-called pattern variable. A pattern variable is in scope when it's successfully matched:

Now the pattern matching feature mainly reduces boilerplate code. However, this functionality will be used for switch expressions in a future Java version.

Pattern variables can shadow fields. For instance, the customer pattern variable can shadow the customer field:

The pattern matching instanceof expression can be combined with other expressions to write more compact methods such as the equals method:


What Should You Look For in an Online Course Platform?

While I’d love to dive right into the list of the best course platforms, there are some things you need to know before you choose the right platform for you.

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  • Marketing Automation:Some platforms come with tools, such as email autoresponders, to help you automate different aspects of your course marketing.
  • Technical Support:This is vitally important for you and your students. Choose a platform that has a responsive and knowledgeable technical support team.
  • Cost:Is the online course platform affordable or does it require significant investment upfront or every month?
  • Special Features:What other special features does the course creation website/software offer that differentiates it from others? Things like working with Zapier or having discussion forums come to mind.
  • Ready-made Market:This is something to consider if you don’t have an audience of your own to market your course to and it will help you make the right choice between course creation software and a course marketplace.

Since there is no one-size-fits-all solution when it comes to creating great online courses, knowing what to look for will help remove the confusion and frustration from making the right choice.


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Infrastructure

Tracks

Each track is to be treated separately. Thus, double track lines are to be mapped with two separate tracks. Tags such as tracks =* are not interpreted by OpenRailwayMap, because each mapped way is treated as a single track.

Train protection systems

A train protection system is mapped as property of a track way. Please note some difficulties:

  • train protection systems can differ per country
  • train protection systems can differ within a country
  • a single track can be compatible with multiple train protection systems (dual signalling)
  • a single train protection system can have different versions/levels

Is the track equipped with the Russian continuous signalling system ALSN on Wikipedia?

Is the track equipped with its non-continuous ALST variant?

Is the track equipped with its no-light ALSO variant?

Is the track equipped with its highspeed ALS-EN variant?

Is the track equipped with its radio-based ALSR variant?

Is the track equipped with its automatic train control variant (used in subways)?

yes/no Anuncio de Señales y

Is the track equipped with the ASFA system that is used on several unconnected lines in Catalonia?

Is the track equipped with the 200 km/h compatible version of ASFA? Note that ASFA Digital does not change track systems!

Is the track equipped with the 'first generation' Dutch signalling system ATB?

Is the track equipped with the 'new generation' Dutch signalling system ATB?

Is the ATB system equipped with extra beacons to ensure protection at low speeds?

The tags railway:gwatp and railway:gw_atp add a Great Western prefix, which is incorrect.

Is the track equipped with the simplified HKT version?

yes/no Zugbeeinflussung Is the track equipped with any Siemens ZUB signalling system?

Is the track equipped with the Siemens ZUB 121 signalling system?

Is the track equipped with the Siemens ZUB 122 signalling system?

Is the track equipped with the Siemens ZUB 123 signalling system?

Is the track equipped with the Siemens ZUB 222c signalling system?

Is the track equipped with Euro-ZUB? Please tag as ECTS.

Bridges

Can be tagged as a way, in addition to be added to a Bridge Relation to represent the entire bridge.

Key Value Property Description Default value
bridge yes/cantilever/covered/movable/trestle/viaduct Bridge Type What kind of bridge carrying the track is. Remember to create separate ways and add them to a bridge relation if the bridge span has a movable bridge at the center. If none of the defined types, enter yes . no
bridge:movable bascule/lift/swing Movable Bridge Type Only tag this if the bridge is tagged as bridge=movable .
layer <layer> Layer To describe the vertical relationship to other bridges and features. 1
bridge:name <Bridge name> Bridge name The name of the bridge.
image <URL> Image The URL to an image of the bridge (If possible images from Wikimedia Commons should be used). Please only use for important bridge and not for small ones (e.g. crossing a small stream). In general it's considered useful to have an image, when there is a Wikipedia article about the bridge.
bridge:wikipedia <language code>:<article name> Wikipedia article Wikipedia article about the bridge, please use the format <language code>:<article name>

Tunnels

Key Value Property Description Default value
tunnel yes Tunnel The track is in a tunnel no
layer <layer> Layer To describe the vertical relationship to other tunnels and features. -1
tunnel:name <Tunnel name> Tunnel name Name of the tunnel
image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the tunnel (If possible, images from Wikimedia Commons should be used).
tunnel:wikipedia <language code>:<article name> Wikipedia article Wikipedia article about the tunnel, please use the format <language code>:<article name>

It is also possible to use a Tunnel Relation.

Switches

In OpenStreetMap, switches are connection points of two railway tracks. They are defined by the following tags:

or "clothoid" if the diverging track starts with a clothoid. This descending radius can be found in high speed switches.

Centres of the curves of the through track and the branch are on opposite sides: outside curved turnout

Crossings

A crossing is a place where two tracks cross each other at grade, without the option to switch track.

Key Value Property Description Default value
railway railway_crossing Crossing Crossings are points, where there are two tracks crossing each other. Use this on the joint node.
railway:railway_crossing:movable yes/no Gap closing Some crossings have movable parts that close the gaps of the used track

Derailers, Trap Points, Catch Points

A derailer is a device on a track to protect other tracks from an unauthorized movement by derailing it.

Key Value Property Description Default value
railway derail Derailer A device placed on a track to protect the track from unauthorized movement by derailing it. In the case where a derailer is physically at the same location as a signal ( railway = signal ), they cannot be placed on the same node, as they are the signal and derailer are both values of the same key.
railway:derail wedge derailer A wedge to derail vehicles which are placed in siding tracks and move unauthorized. Used in Germany and US.
trap_point trap point A switch without a frog on Wikipedia, used to derail trains with pass a stop signal. Used in UK, not in Germany.
catch_point catch point "Catch points used where track follows a rising gradient. They are used to derail (or "catch") any unauthorised vehicles travelling down the gradient." ( Wikipedia on Wikipedia)
railway:local_operated yes/no Locally Operated Is this derailer operated locally (e.g.: manually through a lever), or rather remotely operated from a signal box? no
ref <designation> Designation The name/number of the derailer used by the railroad, which is often at its lever or actuator.

Buffer stops

A buffer stop prevents cars from rolling past the end of a track. In most cases this device should be tagged on the end node of a track, but there are also buffer stops in the middle of a track that should be mapped on their real position instead at the end of the track.

Key Value Property Description Default value
railway buffer_stop Buffer stop

Track clear detectors

Train detection systems for the use of block signalling, such as an axle counter or a track circuit. They should be mapped as a node on the track.

Key Value Property Description Default value
railway vacancy_detection Train clear detector A pair of devices located at the beginning and end of a signal block, with the purpose to detect the presence of a train in the block.
railway:vacancy_detection insulated_rail_joint Track Circuit on Wikipedia The electrical isolation of each signal block from each other and parallel rails. When the train passes over the block, the wheel and axle completes the circuit and energizes the signal relay. This should be mapped at the relay on one end, or where the electricity is supplied at the opposite end.
axle_counter Axle Counter Pair of devices used to compare how many axles enter and exit a signal block.

Rail lubricators

Rail lubricators are stationary devices for grease putting and distribution on the rail track in curves and similar places. They should be mapped as a node on the track.

Key Value Property Description Default value
railway lubricator Rail lubricator Device for grease putting and distribution on the rail track.

Railway territories

Areas used by railway companies such as stations, yards, etc.

Key Value Property Description Default value
landuse railway Railway territory Areas used by railway companies such as stations, yards, etc.

Level crossings

Level crossings are grade-level crossings of road and rail. Each crossing point is to be tagged by the following crossing tags:

Key Value Property Description Default value
Note: Level crossings no longer in use may be tagged by disused: and abandoned: . (Example: disused:railway = level_crossing ).
railway level_crossing Level crossing A level crossing. In this scheme, there is no difference between road and footway crossings since there is not only often a smooth transition in between but also since this information can be derived from the ways involved.
crossing:barrier half/double_half/full/gate/yes/no Barriers Are there any barriers at this crossing (yes/no). Moreover the type of barriers can be stated as well: half boom gates, double half boom gates, full boom gates, gates (UK), any type of gate ( yes ), no barriers no
crossing:light yes/no Light signal Is there a warning light at the crossing? yes
crossing:saltire yes/no Saltire Does the crossing have saltires? Or in North America Crossbucks? yes
crossing:on_demand yes/no On-demand crossing Is this a level-crossing that is usually closed and is only opened on demand (German "Anrufschranke"). no
crossing:bell yes/no Audio warning Is there an audio warning, such as a bell? no
crossing:chicane yes/no Chicane Is there any barrier that forces pedestrians to look in both directions before reaching the actual tracks? (German Wikipedia) no
railway:position <Kilometer/Mile> Position Rounded position, such as 12.3 . Might be depicted on signals or technical buildings next to the crossing. If using miles, prefix the number with mi: .
railway:position:exact <Kilometer/Mile> Exact Position Exact position of the level-crossing, such as 12.345 . If using miles, prefix the number with mi: .
railway:ref <Number> Designation Internal designation of the crossing, not to be used for informal names or positions.
ref:fra_crossing <string> FRA Crossing Reference ID The code by which the Federal Railway Administration refers to this crossing by in their Crossing Inventory. Only applicable in the United States.
crossing:supervision no/camera/attendant/automatic/phone Type of supervision no supervision/camera/attendant/automatic (technical equipment which checks that no vehicles/persons remain on the tracks)/phone (used on on-demand crossings) no
crossing:activation automatic/remote/local Type of activation automatic (contacts)/remote (train director)/in field (attendant/train staff)
railway:level_crossing:closure:average average closure time average time the crossing stays closed
railway:level_crossing:closure:min minimum closure time
railway:level_crossing:closure:max maximum closure time

Small crossings

Small crossings are crossings of footways and rail inside train station for passengers. Each crossing point is to be tagged by the following crossing tags:

Key Value Property Description Default value
Note: Crossings no longer in use may be tagged by disused: and abandoned: . (Example: disused:railway = level_crossing ).
railway crossing Level crossing A level crossing. In this scheme, there is no difference between road and footway crossings since there is not only often a smooth transition in between but also since this information can be derived from the ways involved.
crossing:barrier half/double_half/full/gate/yes/no Barriers Are there any barriers at this crossing (yes/no). Moreover the type of barriers can be stated as well: half boom gates, double half boom gates, full boom gates, gates (UK), any type of gate ( yes ), no barriers no
crossing:light yes/no Light signal Is there a warning light at the crossing? yes
crossing:saltire yes/no Saltire Does the crossing have saltires? yes
crossing:on_demand yes/no On-demand crossing Is this a level-crossing that is usually closed and is only opened on demand (German "Anrufschranke"). no
crossing:bell yes/no Audio warning Is there an audio warning, such as a bell? no
crossing:chicane yes/no Chicane Is there any barrier that forces pedestrains to look in both directions before reaching the actual tracks? (German Wikipedia) no
railway:position <Kilometer/Mile> Position Rounded position, such as 12.3 . Might be depicted on signals or technical buildings next to the crossing. If using miles, prefix the number with mi: .
railway:position:exact <Kilometer/Mile> Exact Position Exact position of the level-crossing, such as 12.345 . If using miles, prefix the number with mi: .
railway:ref <Number> Designation Internal designation of the crossing, not to be used for informal names or positions.
crossing:supervision no/camera/attendant/automatic/phone Type of supervision no supervision/camera/attendant/automatic (technical equipment which checks that no vehicles/persons remain on the tracks)/phone (used on on-demand crossings) no
crossing:activation automatic/remote/local Type of activation automatic (contacts)/remote (train director)/in field (attendant/train staff)
railway:level_crossing:closure:average average closure time average time the crossing stays closed
railway:level_crossing:closure:min minimum closure time
railway:level_crossing:closure:max maximum closure time

Electrification System Change

For electrified railways, in addition to the tags the tracks of each electrical system get, you can also map a node for the transition point between systems.

Key Value Property Description Default value
railway isolated_track_section Systemtrennstelle/Schutzstrecke The point where two different electrical sections meet. This can be either at a substation within the same electrical system, or between electrical systems. (e.g.: between Amtrak's 25Hz system and their 12.5kV 60Hz system.)

Operator Boundary

The point where the operator of a track changes (e.g. at sidings or connections between private railway companies and the national railway company.

This tag has been used for owner changes at country borders until end 2014/early 2015.

Key Value Property Description Default value
railway owner_change Operator change point The point where two different operators meet each other. This implies a change in ownership of the Right of Way.
railway:name:<operator 1> <Name> Boundary Name The name of this boundary point as referred to as one of the railway operators.
railway:name:<operator 2> <Name> Boundary Name The name of this boundary point as referred to as the other railway operator.
railway:ref:<operator 1> <Abbreviation> Reference Name The internal reference name for this boundary point as referred to as one of the railway operators. This is often an abbreviation of the above names.
railway:ref:<operator 2> <Abbreviation> Reference Name The internal reference name for this boundary point as referred to as the other railway operator. This is often an abbreviation of the above names.


Operator abbrevations are derived from the common abbrevations (DB, ÖBB, CFL, NS, SNCF, FS, PKP, …) as defined in Vehicle Keeper Marking Register. All these abbreviations are written uppercase!

System border at country border

The point where the operator of a track changes due to a country border. This is usually a more significant change than owner changes inside a country because the law changes, too.

If the system and owner change is exactly the same point as the country border, the owner change node is connected both to the railway track and the border.

Key Value Property Description Default value
railway border system boundary The point where two different railway systems meet each other. This implies a change in ownership of the Right of Way.
railway:name:<operator 1> <Name> Boundary Name The name of this boundary point as referred to as one of the railway operators.
railway:name:<operator 2> <Name> Boundary Name The name of this boundary point as referred to as the other railway operator.
railway:ref:<operator 1> <Abbreviation> Reference Name The internal reference name for this boundary point as reffered to as one of the railway operators. This is often an abbreviation of the above names.
railway:ref:<operator 2> <Abbreviation> Reference Name The internal reference name for this boundary point as reffered to as the other railway operator. This is often an abbreviation of the above names.

Operator abbrevations are derived from the common abbrevations (DB, ÖBB, CFL, NS, SNCF, FS, PKP, …) as defined in Vehicle Keeper Marking Register. All these abbreviations are written uppercase!

Signals

Kilometer Signs/Mileposts

Signs designed to measure the length of a railway line. They should be entered as nodes on the tracks themselves. If the railway line has more than one track, it should be entered on each track. Only through tracks should be tagged, as that is what the signs measure (e.g.: do not tag sidings).

Key Value Property Description Default value
railway milestone Unit Sign Sign or post for measuring the length of a railway line.
railway:position <Value of sign, such as 40.6 > Milepost Value Rounded number displayed on the sign, separated with . . In Germany, for example, this is the number, a decimal point, and then the first digit of the lower number. Negative values are permitted. If using miles, prefix the number with mi: .
railway:position:exact <Value of sign, such as 40.625 > Exact Milepost Value Exact number displayed on the sign, separated with . . In Germany, for example, this is the number followed by a decimal point, and then a 3-digit number in the lower corner. Negative values are permitted. If using miles, prefix the number with mi: .
railway:milestone:emergency_brake_override yes/no Emergency Brake Override Is there a mark on the sign to indicate changes to Emergency Brake usage? (e.g.: In Germany, this is an orange band.) no
railway:milestone:emergency_brake_override:direction forward/backward Direction of Emergency Brake Override The direction of the OpenStreetMap way for which the mark applies. no
railway:milestone:catenary_mast yes/no Catenary Pole Is the milepost attached to a catenary Pole no

Signals

The content of this section has been moved to Tag:railway=signal and OpenRailwayMap/Tagging/Signal

Interlocking

Signal box

Signal boxes can be mapped as either a node or an area.

Key Value Property Description Default value
Note: Disused and abandoned signal boxes can be mapped by adding disused: or abandoned: . (Example: disused:railway = signal_box ).
railway signal_box Interlocking A railway building where railway traffic is controlled via signal commands. Easily recognizable by their tower-like appearance, with a sign or label on the outside. Becoming less used as signal control is centralized.
railway:signal_box mechanical Mechanical Interlocking A mechanical interlocking system where signals are operated mechanically with levers.
electric Electrical/Electromechanical Interlocking An interlocking system that controls the signals electrically, regardless if the signals themselves are electrical or mechanical.
track_diagram Track Diagram Interlocking An interlocking system where a diagram of the track it covers is mapped on a large display panel, and switches or buttons are placed in correspondance to signal position on the map. In North America, this is usually done through a centralized dispatching office and called Centralized Traffic Control, or CTC.
electronic Electronic Interlocking A fully computer-controlled interlocking system. The job is either done automatically or through a logic software run by a computer.
name <interlocking name> Interlocking Name The name of the interlocking. For example, for German Interlockings, it could be "Neuss Ngf" or "Holzheim ESTW-A".
railway:ref <Interlocking Reference> Interlocking Code The railway interlocking abbreviation. For example, "BROOK" for BROOK Interlocking.
operating_times <syntax like opening_hours =*> operating times When is the signal box manned (i.e. when do employees interlock switches and signals)?
start_date <date> Date of opening Date the Interlocking Tower was put into service. For formatting, see start_date =*.
end_date <date> Date of closing Date the Interlocking Tower was taken out of service. For formatting, see end_date =*.
railway:position Value Position See Milepost section above.
railway:position:exact Value Exact position See Milepost section above.
image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the interlocking, from (am besten von Wikimedia Commons).
railway:local_operated yes/no Locally Operated Is the Interlocking Tower operated manually by an employee, or controlled automatically from somewhere else? yes
building yes Building Is the interlocking mapped as an area?

Interlocking range

In addition, a relation is created for each interlocking. This is to cover the area controlled by the Interlocking Tower.

Key Value Property Description Default value
type railway railway relation Flags this relation as being a railway relation.
railway interlocking Control Area A relation that captures the area in which the Interlocking Tower controls. (The tag railway = controlled_area is deprecated)
name <interlocking name> Interlocking Name The name of the interlocking.
railway:ref <interlocking reference> Interlocking reference The abbreviation or reference code for the interlocking.

In the relation itself, the following members should be included:

Role Count Feature Description
<empty> 1 Interlocking Tower The Interlocking Tower shouldn't be given a role, but should be included.
facility >=1 Operating Points Operating Sites's relations should be given this role.. See the explanation of what they are if you are unsure what this means.
signal_box >=0 Remote Interlockings Other interlockings (with their relation) that are controlled by this interlocking tower should be given this role., as they are part of this interlocking's control area.
crossing >=0 level_crossings Level Crossings that are controlled by the Interlocking Tower should be given this role.. Do not include manually operated or fully automatic level crossings here.
signal >=0 Signal Signals controlled by the interlocking should be given this role.
switch >=0 Switch Switches controlled by the interlocking should be given this role.

Crossing box

Crossing boxes can be mapped as either a node of an area (the building). Crossing boxes are buildings where crossing keepers (also known as crossing attendants) stay. We do not map if a level crossing is staffed temporarily because it is defect.

Key Value Property Description Default value
Note: Disused and abandoned crossing boxes can be mapped by adding disused: or abandoned: . (Example: disused:railway = crossing_box ).
railway crossing_box Crossing box A railway building where the crossing attendant stays. This buildings are usually one or two levels high and next to the level crossing because the attendant has to observe it.
name <crossing (box) name> Crossing (Box) Name The name of the crossing box.
operating_times <syntax like opening_hours =*> operating times When is the crossing box manned (When do employees close the gates if a train approaches? When do train drivers not have to close the gates by theirselves?)?
start_date <date> Date of opening Date the crossing box was put into service. For formatting, see start_date =*.
end_date <date> Date of closing Date the crossing box was taken out of service (e.g. due to closure of the level crossing or installation of automatic barriers. For formatting, see end_date =*.
railway:position Value Position See Milepost section above.
railway:position:exact Value Exact position See Milepost section above.
image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the interlocking, from (am besten von Wikimedia Commons).
building yes Building Is the crossing box mapped as an area?

Block Post

Block posts is a signal box building, where a railway employee manually operates block signalling. Block posts are mapped as a node or an area (the building).

If the employee also operates a level crossing, its building is mapped as a block post, not as a crossing box.

Key Value Objekt Beschreibung Standardwert
Note: Disused and abandoned block posts can be mapped by adding disused: or abandoned: . (Example: disused:railway = blockpost ).
railway blockpost block post A building where the railway company employee works. It is a signal box. Ein Bahngebäude, in dem sich der Blockwärter aufhält und den Streckenblock bedient. This buildings are usually one or two levels high. They are often not in the near of level crossings.
name <block post name> block post name The name of the block post.
operating_times <syntax like opening_hours =*> operating times When is the signal box manned (i.e. when do employees interlock switches and signals)?
start_date <date> Date of opening Date the crossing box was put into service. For formatting, see start_date =*.
end_date <date> Date of closing Date the block post was taken out of service (e.g. due to removal of the block signals or installation of automatic block signalling. For formatting, see end_date =*.
railway:position Value Position See Milepost section above.
railway:position:exact Value Exact position See Milepost section above.
image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the interlocking, from (am besten von Wikimedia Commons).
building yes Building Is the block post mapped as an area?

Operating Sites

For English speakers, there is no real equivalent for the German term "Betriebsstelle", or Operating Sites. Since this scheme is made by Germans, it is important for mappers to understand what it means. "Betriebsstelle" in German is a railway engineering term that refers to locations on the railroad where special infrastructure is installed this means Junctions, both Freight and Passenger Stations, among other things described in the section below. From herein, the word Betriebsstelle will not be used.

Operating Sites are to be mapped as a node in the center of the site. Optionally (though recommended for information's sake), a relation can be used to encompass the entire site, which is described in the section below.

An overview for the way Operating Sites should be mapped is included below:

  • The purpose of including Operating Sites is that they are needed in positioning a label on the map, to be used as a destination for routing applications, or to be used as a search result.
    • Normally, it is mapped as a node at the geographical center of the Operating Site.
    • Since the point of the node is for routing purposes, it can be acceptable to map the node somewhere else if placing it at the geographical center of the Operating Site will have adverse affects. Example: The geographical center is in the middle of water or a forest, or other such area.
    • When mapping the area of the Operating Point through the appropriate relation, use the following standards:
      • Track towards an Operating Point (in the case of a Station) should start at the entry signals, signs on the track announcing the station, or the switch it originates from. For non-stations, use analogous landmarks to determine this.
        • In North America, knowing where to differentiate this could be a bit nebulous. Still, try and keep with the logic structure.

        Additionally, you should map Stop Positions. These are then included in the aforementioned Operating Site relation. Interlockings are not Operating Sites.

        Milepost information is not to be included in the Operating Site relation.

        Operating Site Types

        Stations / Stops

        Tag the using node in middle of the station/halt, NOT on the way representing the track.

        If a station is composed of two or more operational independent stations (e.g. two companies' station side-by-side, strictly separated, they should be mapped as two stations, each one should have its own node. For example, see Berlin Zoologischer Garten (S-Bahn/light rail in the north-west and heavy rail in the south-east). Stations which are operational part of another (mostly large) station are mapped as independent station and connected to their parent station using operation site relations. For example, see Köln Hansaring, which belongs to Köln Hbf (Cologne Central Station).

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused or abandoned stations can be mapped using disused: and abandoned: (For example: disused:railway = station ).
        railway station Station Place with at least one switch, where trains begin, end, cross, turn, end etc. Used for all stations with access for passengers. This can be passenger-only stations, but also stations that are used for passenger traffic and freight traffic or internal purposes.
        halt Halt Place where trains stop on request (a flag stop), at least in North America. In German-speaking countries, this is used for railway stations that don't have any switches.
        tram_stop Tram stop Stop point for trams.
        subway yes Subway station This is a subway station. The tagging scheme does not have a distinction between train and subway stations. no
        name <station name> Station name Name of the station. Use the name on the signs on the station building or at platforms, for example "Köln Hbf".
        railway:ref <station code> Station Code The code used for the station. In North America, this might be something like NYP for New York Penn Station or OSB for Old Saybrook Station if it's an Amtrak station. In Germany, the Ril 100 code would be something like KN for Neuss Hbf. Abbreviations used by companies other than the operator can be tagged using railway:ref:(company) =*.
        uic_ref <number> UIC reference number Number of the station according to UIC.
        uic_name <name> UIC name Name of the station according to UIC.
        railway:station_category <station_category> Station category Category of the station, in Germany see Details.
        operator <operator_name> Operator Operator of the station.
        network <network_name> Network Name of the network the station belongs to.
        operating_times <syntax like opening_hours =*> operating times When is the station manned (i.e. when do employees interlock switches and signals)? This tag does not cover opening hours of ticket counters.
        start_date <date> Date of opening Date the station was put into service. For formatting, see start_date =*.
        end_date <date> Date of closing Date the station was taken out of service. For formatting, see end_date =*.
        image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the station (If possible, images from Wikimedia Commons should be used).
        ele <number> Elevation Elevation of the station in metres.
        wikipedia <lang>:<article name> Wikipedia article Article on Wikipedia. Tag the key in the format <language_code>:<Article name>, for example "wikipedia=en:London King's Cross railway station".

        Marshalling Yard/Classification Yard/Freight Yard/Freight Station

        Essentially, a railway station used only for freight. It should be mapped at the center of the facility, NOT on the way representing the track.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused or abandoned stations can be mapped using disused: or abandoned: (For example: disused:railway = yard ).
        railway yard Freight Yard Essentially, a railway station for freight. This includes yards that don't involve the loading or unloading of freight.
        name <name> Name The full name of the freight yard, such as Oak Point Yard.
        railway:yard:size small/medium/large/very_large Size of the yard Examples to help find the right value can be found on railway = yard
        railway:yard:purpose maintenance/intermodal/automobile/storage/manifest What is the yard used for?
        railway:yard:hump yes/no Does the yard have a hump?
        railway:ref <yard code> Yard Code The reference code for the yard (see also passenger stations). Abbreviations used by companies other than the operator can be tagged using railway:ref:(company) =*.
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of the yard.
        operating_times <syntax like opening_hours =*> operating times When is the freight station manned (i.e. when do employees interlock switches and signals)?
        start_date <date> Date of opening Date the yard was put into service. For formatting, see start_date =*.
        end_date <date> Date of closing Date the yard was taken out of service. For formatting, see end_date =*.
        image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the yard (If possible, images from Wikimedia Commons should be used).
        ele <number> Elevation Elevation of the yard in metres.
        wikipedia <lang>:<article name> Wikipedia article Article on Wikipedia. Tag the key in the format <language_code>:<Article name>, for example "wikipedia=en:Oak Point Yard".

        Employee Station

        A railway station used by railway employees only, and is not normally accessible by passengers of freight traffic. Often, these are for maintenance facilities, but there are a number of other uses. It should be mapped at the center of the station, NOT on the way representing the track.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused or abandoned stations can be mapped using disused: or abandoned: (For Example: disused:railway = service_station ).
        railway service_station Employee Station A railway station only used by railway employees
        name <name> Name Name of the station.
        railway:ref <station code> Station Code The code used for the station. In North America, this might be something like NYP for New York Penn Station or OSB for Old Saybrook Station if it's an Amtrak station. In Germany, the Ril 100 code would be something like KN for Neuss Hbf. Abbrevations used by companies other than the operator can be tagged using railway:ref:(company) =*.
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of the yard.
        operating_times <syntax like opening_hours =*> operating times When is the station manned (i.e. when do employees interlock switches and signals)?
        start_date <date> Date of opening Date the station was put into service. For formatting, see start_date =*.
        end_date <date> Date of closing Date the station was taken out of service. For formatting, see end_date =*.
        image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the station (If possible, images from Wikimedia Commons should be used).
        ele <number> Elevation Elevation of the station in metres.
        wikipedia <lang>:<article name> Wikipedia article Article on Wikipedia. Tag the key in the format <language_code>:<Article name>, for example "wikipedia=en:London King's Cross railway station".

        Junctions

        The junction between two railways. It should be mapped at the center of the station, NOT on the way representing the track.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused or abandoned stations can be mapped using disused: or abandoned: (For Example: disused:railway = junction ).
        railway junction Railway Junction A place on a railway where another route branches off of it.
        name <name> Name Name of the junction.
        railway:ref Junction Code The reference code the railway uses to refer to the junction. Abbreviations used by companies other than the operator can be tagged using railway:ref:(company) =*.
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of the junction.
        start_date <date> Date of opening Date the junction was put into service. For formatting, see start_date =*.
        end_date <date> Date of closing Date the junction was taken out of service. For formatting, see end_date =*.
        image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the Junction (If possible, images from Wikimedia Commons should be used).
        ele <number> Elevation Elevation of the junction in metres.
        wikipedia <lang>:<article name> Wikipedia article Article on Wikipedia. Tag the key in the format <language_code>:<Article name>, for example "wikipedia=en:Fresh Pond Junction".

        Crossover

        A crossover is a pair of switches that allows trains to transfer to parallel track of a multitrack line or from a single track section to a double track section of the same line. It is mapped as a node in the center of the crossover facility, but not as a node on a track.

        Additionally the crossover track is being tagged with service = crossover to mark its function.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused and abandoned crossover can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (example: disused:railway = crossover ).
        railway crossover Crossover A pair of switches that allows a train to switch to a parallel track.
        name <name of crossover> Name of crossover The name of a crossover.
        railway:ref Crossover Code The reference code the railway uses to refer to the crossover. Abbreviations used by companies other than the operator can be tagged using railway:ref:(company) =*.
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of the crossover.
        start_date <date> Date of opening Date the crossover was put into service. For formatting, see start_date =*.
        end_date <date> Date of closing Date the crossover was taken out of service. For formatting, see end_date =*.
        image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the crossover (If possible, images from Wikimedia Commons should be used).
        ele <number> Elevation Elevation of the crossover in metres.
        wikipedia <lang>:<article name> Wikipedia article Article on Wikipedia. Tag the key in the format <language_code>:<Article name>, for example "wikipedia=en:Fresh Pond Junction".

        Sidings

        A siding is an operating site, where a spur forks from a railway line.

        Key Value Property Description Default
        Note: Disused and abandoned sidings can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (example: disused:railway = spur_junction ).
        railway spur_junction siding The position where a spur forks from a main line.
        name < name of the siding> name of the siding name of the siding
        railway:ref Siding Code The reference code the railway uses to refer to the siding. Abbreviations used by companies other than the operator can be tagged using railway:ref:(company) =*.
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of the siding.
        start_date <date> Date of opening Date the siding was put into service. For formatting, see start_date =*.
        end_date <date> Date of closing Date the siding was taken out of service. For formatting, see end_date =*.
        image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the siding (If possible, images from Wikimedia Commons should be used).
        ele <number> Elevation Elevation of the siding in metres.
        wikipedia <lang>:<article name> Wikipedia article Article on Wikipedia. Tag the key in the format <language_code>:<Article name>, for example "wikipedia=en:Fresh Pond Junction".

        Other Operating Sites

        Any Operating Site not covered above (e.g. movable bridges). Note that Interlocking Towers ARE NOT Operating Sites. It should be mapped at the center of the site, NOT on the way representing the track.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused or abandoned stations can be mapped using disused: or abandoned: (For Example: disused:railway = site ).
        railway site Railway Site An Operating Site. Note that Interlocking Towers ARE NOT Operating Sites.
        name <name of site> Site Name The name of the site.
        railway:ref Site Code The reference code the railway uses to refer to the site. Abbreviations used by companies other than the operator can be tagged using railway:ref:(company) =*.
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of the site.
        operating_times <syntax like opening_hours =*> operating times When is the operating site manned (i.e. when do employees interlock switches and signals)?
        start_date <date> Date of opening Date the site was put into service. For formatting, see start_date =*.
        end_date <date> Date of closing Date the site was taken out of service. For formatting, see end_date =*.
        image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the site (If possible, images from Wikimedia Commons should be used).
        ele <number> Elevation Elevation of the site in metres.
        wikipedia <lang>:<article name> Wikipedia article Article on Wikipedia. Tag the key in the format <language_code>:<Article name>, for example "wikipedia=en:Fresh Pond Junction".

        Stop positions

        This is not necessarily required, but can help routing significantly in the absence of other information. If you know where they are, map them. Tagging is based off of the Public Transport Schema, but was expanded to cover non-public transit as well. This should be mapped as a node ON the way of the track.

        On stations and halts (whether with or without passenger trains stopping there) every track which may be tagged with usage =* should get a node with railway = stop . In addition, every track with a platform should get a node with railway = stop . If there is a node with public_transport = stop_position already, add railway = stop to this node.

        On sidings one node per track before and after the siding should be tagged with railway = stop . The same applies for crossovers.

        You can use following tags for stop positions:

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        public_transport stop_position Stop Position Defines this point as a stop position of the vehicle (locomotive). In Stop Positions without public transport, this tag is not used.
        railway stop Stop Position Defines the stop position of the locomotive. If public transportation, use this in addition to the above tag.
        name <name> Name The name of the stop position, such as Locust Manor or Köln-West .
        railway:ref <Stop Position Code> Abbreviation The code used for the station. In North America, this might be something like NYP for New York Penn Station or OSB for Old Saybrook Station if it's an Amtrak station. In Germany, the Ril 100 code would be something like KN for Neuss Hbf.
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of the holding position.
        network <network name> Network The railway network the holding position is part of.
        uic_ref UIC-Code The UIC (International Union of Railways) Code for this stop position.
        uic_name <name> UIC-Name The UIC (International Union of Railways) Name for this stop position.
        train yes/no Railway Is the stop position for a railway? no
        light_rail yes/no Light Rail Is the stop position for light rail? no
        subway yes/no Subway Is the stop position for a subway? no
        tram yes/no Tram Is the stop position for a tram? no
        railway:position Value Position See Milepost section above.
        railway:position:exact Value Exact position See Milepost section above.

        Operating Site (Relation)

        The associated components of an Operating Site, such as platforms, buildings, and stop positions. The tagging is based off of stop_areas in the Public Transport Schema, but is extended to cover non-public transit Operating Sites.

        Interlockings are not Operating Sites.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway facility Operating Site General tag for Operating Site relations.
        type public_transport Public Transport Describes this relation as a public transport relation. Only necessary if it is public transportation.
        public_transport stop_area Stop Area Defines this relation as a stop area. Only necessary if it is public transportation, and used with the above tag.
        name <name> Name The name of the Operating Site it should match the name of the node.
        railway:ref Site Code The reference code the railway uses to refer to the site it should match the name of the node. Abbreviations used by companies other than the operator can be tagged using railway:ref:(company) =*.
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of the Operating Site.
        uic_ref UIC-Code The UIC (International Union of Railways) Code for this Operating Site.
        uic_name <name> UIC-Name The UIC (International Union of Railways) Name for this Operating Site.
        train yes/no Railway Is the Operating Site for a railway? no
        light_rail yes/no Light Rail Is the Operating Site for light rail? no
        subway yes/no Subway Is the Operating Site for a subway? no
        tram yes/no Tram Is the Operating Site for a tram? no

        In this relation, the following members should be included:

        Role Count Feature Description
        stop >1 Stop Position At least one stop position should be included.
        platform >=0 Platform If present, platforms should be included.
        subway_entrance >=0 Subway Entrance If present, subway entrances should be included.
        landuse 0-1 Operating Site Property The physical area the Operating Site can be included. This should be a single area mapped with the tag landuse = railway .
        building >=0 Buildings Any buildings part of the Operating Site should be included. Usually, this is the station building.
        <empty, no role> 1 Operating Site Node The node of the Operating Site must be included. Leave the role field empty even if JOSM warns you.

        Railway lines

        Railway Lines are mapped with relations, and split between three categories that should not be mixed up: infrastructure, railway route, and train route. Infrastructure is the first type, based around the physical tracks. These are often expressed as branches for smaller lines. A second type of relation is the railway route, which is the route of operation of trains (plural) over the infrastructure. (In North America, expressing physical track infrastructure as "railway line" relations is omitted, "skipping" to "railway route" relations to represent infrastructure as collections of track elements). The third category of relation is the train route, which is the route a specific train will take over the aforementioned railway route, showing in order the standard tracks it will take and where it will stop.

        Railway Line

        The physical railroad on which trains operate. Way direction is not required ( key:oneway should not be on the ways), and ways do not have to be added as members in any specific order. Only tracks are to be included in this relation. Only the mainline should be included, with sidings and spurs being excluded. Railway Line relations are omitted in North America.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        type route Route Indicates this relation is a route.
        route tracks Railway Line Indicates that this route is of a Railway Line.
        name <Name> Name Name of the Railway Line.
        owner <owner> Owner The owner of the Railway Line.
        ref <code> Code A code used internally by the Railroad to refer to this Railway Line. Included because Germany has such a system.
        from <city> Beginning City The city in which the Railway Line begins. If the line is a spur and only connects to another Railway Line at one end, that city should be the "from" city.
        to <city> Ending City The city in which the Railway Line ends.
        wikipedia <lang>:<article name> Wikipedia article Article on Wikipedia. Tag the key in the format <language_code>:<Article name>.
        historic railway Historic Railway Line Is this railway line historic (not currently considered this)? This does not necessarily mean the tracks are nonexistent, as it can also indicate parts of this line were used to create a new line. no
        abandoned yes/no Abandoned Railway Line Were the tracks of this right-of-way removed? If so, please use the above key historic=yes as well. no

        Railway Route

        Railway Routes are the route of operation of trains over a Railway Line. Way direction is not required (key:oneway should not be on the ways), and ways do not have to be added as members in any specific order, although it is considered good practice to sort the relation members for connectivity, for example by clicking JOSM's relation editor's "Sort" button. Only tracks are to be included in this relation. Only the mainline should be included, with sidings and spurs being excluded. In North America, Railway Route relations effectively conflate "Railway Line" and "route of operation of trains" into a single relation of this type.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        type route Route Indicates this relation is a route.
        route railway Railway Route Tag which classifies the relation as a railway route.
        name <Name> Name Name of the Railway Route. In North America, the names of these are often suffixed with "Subdivision" if they are a mainline, or sometimes "Branch" or "Secondary" if they aren't mainlines.
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of the Railway Route. Separate multiple values with a semicolon.
        owner <owner> Owner The owner of the Railway Route.
        ref <code> Code A code used internally by the Railroad to refer to this Railway Route.
        from <city> Beginning City The city in which the Railway Line begins.
        to <city> Ending City The city in which the Railway Line ends.
        wikipedia <lang>:<article name> Wikipedia article Article on Wikipedia. Tag the key in the format <language_code>:<Article name>, for example "wikipedia=en:River Subdivision (Canadian Pacific Railway)".
        historic railway Historic Railway Route Is this railway route a former route? no

        Station/Stop

        All components of a station/stop, including stop positions, are summarized by adding them to a relation. The tagging is directly based on the Public Transport Schema, but was extended to also cover Operating Sites, which is a category that contains things not used in public transport.

        For further tagging guideance, see Operating Sites.

        Operating Site Facilities

        Platforms

        A platform for passengers to wait and enter trains from. See loading docks for freight. Mapped as either a way or area, although an area is recommended.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused and abandoned platforms can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:railway = platform ).
        railway platform Railway Platform A platform. Mapped as either a way or area, although an area is recommended.
        public_transport platform Public Transport Platform If used in public transit, it should be tagged with this. This is part of the new Public Transport Schema.
        name <name> proper name If the platform has a proper name, name =* is used. Use ref =* to map the track numbers.
        ref <number> Track Numbers The track numbers served by this platform, separated by a Semicolon ( ). For example, 12 .
        area yes/no Area Is the platform mapped an an area? yes
        lit yes/no Lighting Is the platform lit? no
        covered yes/no Covered Is the platform covered? no
        surface asphalt/paving_stones/concrete etc. Platform Surface The material the surface of the platform is. See Key:surface for more values.
        wheelchair yes/no/limited Wheelchair Accessibility Is the platform wheelchair accessible?
        tactile_paving yes/no/incorrect Tactile Paving Is the platform equipped with tactile paving for a blindman's cane? The most widespread and important on the yellow line that borders the track end of the platform. Note that tactile_paving:yes cannot be used on areas, so if present should be mapped on a separate way.
        height <height> Platform Height The height of the platform in meters. If using feet, prefix with ft: .
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of the platform.

        If a track along one platform edge has multiple numbers (e.g. 4a and 4b because it is used by two trains at the same time), the platform can be mapped as multipolygon. Tags which were tagged at the area should be transferred to the multipolygon relation. The platform edges parallel to the tracks are tagged with railway = platform_edge and ref = <track number> .

        If the platform is divided into sections (A, B, C, …) to describe which carriage stops at which section, you can map a nodes at the section signs onto the platform edge and tag it with railway:platform:section = C .

        Ticket vending machines

        A vending machine where it is possible to buy transport tickets.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        amenity vending_machine vending machine Generic tag for a vending machine. Beeing tagged as a point.
        vending public_transport_tickets ticket machine Amachine where you can buy tickets.
        operator <operator> operator The operator of these machines, such as Deutsche Bahn .
        ref <Number> Machine number The internal number of the machine. Often written on it.
        payment:coins yes/no Coins Does the machine accept coins? no
        payment:notes yes/no banknotes Does the machine accept banknotes? no
        payment:electronic_purses yes/no Stored value cards Does the machine accept prepaid cards? no
        payment:debit_cards yes/no Maestro/debit cards Does the machine accept debit cards, e.g.: maestro? no
        payment:credit_cards yes/no Credit cards Does the machine accept credit cards? no
        payment:account_cards yes/no loyalty cards Does the machine accept loyalty cards, e.g.: "BahnCard" or "Railcard"? no

        Ticket counters

        A desk where you can buy tickets and ask for information. Mapped as a node.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        shop ticket Ticket Counter A desk where you can buy tickets and ask for information. Mapped as a node.
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of the ticket counter, such as Amtrak .
        name <name> Name A name for the ticket counter.
        opening_hours <Öffnungszeiten> Hours of Operation The hours of operation of the ticket counters.

        Subway entrances

        Access to a metro station. Mapped as a node at the entrance.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway subway_entrance Subway Entrance Access to a metro station. Mapped as a node at the entrance.
        name <Name> Name The name of the entrance and the metro station.
        wheelchair yes/no/limited Wheelchair Accessibility Is the entrance wheelchair accessible?
        bicycle yes/no Bicycle Accessibility Is the entrance bicycle accessible?

        Service Telephone

        Telephones are plotted as node on their actual locations next to the track.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway phone Fernsprecher A service telephone for the railway, often at level crossings so that in emergency someone can connect to the relevant signal operator. Telephones are plotted as node on their actual locations next to the track.
        ref <number> Reference Number A reference number for the telephone, not the telephone number.

        Water tower

        A water tower to supply steam locomotives with water. Can be mapped as a node or area, with area being preferrable.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused and abandoned water towers can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:railway = water_tower ).
        railway water_tower Water Tower A water tower to supply steam locomotives with water.
        man_made water_tower Water Tower A tower that holds water at an elevation to build up water system pressure via gravity.
        building yes Building If the water tower is a building or not.
        area yes/no Area Is the water tower mapped as an area?

        Fuelling Station

        A fuelling station for locomotives. Can be mapped as a node or area, with area being preferrable.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway fuel Tankstelle A fuelling station for locomotives, primarily diesel-electrics.
        building yes Building If the fuelling station is a building or not.
        area yes/no Area Is the fuelling station mapped as an area?

        Water Crane

        A water crane used to deliver water into the tank or tender of a steam locomotive. Mapped as a node.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused and abandoned water cranes can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:railway = water_crane ).
        railway water_crane Water Crane A water crane used to deliver water into the tank or tender of a steam locomotive.

        Coaling Station

        A fuelling station to provide steam locomotives with coal. Can be mapped as a node or area, with area being preferrable.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused and abandoned coaling station can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:railway = coaling_facility ).
        railway coaling_facility Coaling Station A fuelling station to provide steam locomotives with coal.
        area yes/no Area Is the coaling station mapped as an area? yes

        Sand Store

        A facility where locomotives can refill their barrels. It is tagged with railway = sand_store .

        Disused and abandoned sand stores can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:railway = sand_store ).

        Sewage Disposal

        A facility where sewage from train toilets and other types of waste are disposed.

        Key Value Objekt Beschreibung Standardwert
        Note: Disused and abandoned sewage disposals can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:railway = waste_disposal ).
        railway waste_disposal waste disposal facility A facility where waste is disposed.
        waste brown_water brown water sewage from water toilets (common in Germany)
        chemical_toilet chemical toilet sewage from chemical toilets
        area yes/no Area Is the facility mapped as an area? yes

        Compressed Air

        A facility to get compressed air. It is tagged with railway = compressed_air_supply .

        Disused and abandoned compressed air supply stations can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:railway = compressed_air_supply ).

        Power Supply

        Power sockets next to yard tracks which are used by employees cleaning trains. It is mapped using railway = power_supply .

        Disused and abandoned power supplies stations can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:railway = power_supply ).

        Preheating

        Preheating facilities are mapped using railway = preheating .

        Disused and abandoned preheating facilities can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:railway = preheating ).

        Car Wash

        A place where locomotives and rolling stock are cleaned. Can be mapped as a node or area, with area being preferrable.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused and abandoned car wash can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:railway = wash ).
        railway wash Car Wash A place where locomotives and rolling stock are cleaned.
        building yes Building If the car wash is a building or not.
        area yes/no Area Is the car wash mapped as an area?

        A pit between the rails to repair locomotives or rolling stock from underneath.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway pit Pit A pit between the rails to repair locomotives or rolling stock from underneath. Mapped as a node on the track at the center of the pit.

        Loading Gauge Structure

        A structure used to check compliance with the railway's loading gauge. Mapped as a node on the track.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused or abandoned structure gauges can be tagged by adding disused: and abandoned: (Example: disused:railway = loading_gauge ).
        railway loading_gauge Loading Gauge Structure A structure used to check compliance with the railway's loading gauge. More recently, this is an electronic detector that uses light beams, but has been and can be an arm of gantry placed over the exit of a goods yard or the entrance of a restricted part of the railway. Mapped as a node on the track.

        A hill in a classification yard that the lead track of the yard goes over. Railroad cars then roll down the other side into the appropriate track.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway hump_yard Hump A hill in a classification yard that the lead track of the yard goes over. Railroad cars then roll down the other side into the appropriate track. This is mapped as a point on the track at the peak of the hill.

        Retarder

        A retarder is a track-based brake used in hump yards to keep the speed of cars low.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway rail_brake Retarder A retarder is a track-based brake used in hump yards to keep the speed of cars low. It is on the outside of the tracks and grips the wheels against the tracks to slow them down. It is mapped as a node at the end closest to the hump in the hump yard.

        Engine Shed

        A shed to protect locomotives and rolling stock from the environment. Can be mapped as a node or area, with area being preferable.

        It is reccomended mapping the node where track intersects the building as entrance=yes . Consider potentially also adding the tags to that node as barrier=door with tags like door:overhead (if the door is an up-and-over door), or door:sliding (if the door slides to the left or the right to open).

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused and abandoned engine shed can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:railway = engine_shed ).
        railway engine_shed Engine Shed A shed to protect locomotives and rolling stock from the environment. Can be mapped as a node or area, with area being preferrable.
        building yes Building If the shed is mapped as an area, it should have this tag.
        name <name> Name The name of the engine shed.

        Locomotive Works

        A engine shed that is built to serve as a maintenance facility for locomotives or rolling stock. Can be mapped as a node or area, with area being preferrable.

        It is reccomended mapping the node where track intersects the building as entrance=yes . Consider potentially also adding the tags to that node as barrier=door with tags like door:overhead (if the door is an up-and-over door), or door:sliding (if the door slides to the left or the right to open).

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused and abandoned locomotive works can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:railway = workshop ).
        railway workshop Locomotive Works A engine shed that is built to serve as a maintenance facility for locomotives or rolling stock. Can be mapped as a node or area, with area being preferrable.
        building yes Building If the shed is mapped as an area, it should have this tag.
        name <name> Name The name of the locomotive works.

        Radio Mast (Railroad)

        A radio mast that the railroad transmits its radio system from. It is mapped as a node.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway radio Radio Mast A radio mast that the railroad transmits its radio system from. It is mapped as a node.
        ref <reference> Reference A reference code used to identify the radio tower.
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of the radio mast.
        railway:radio analogue/gsm-r Radio Type Is the radio analogue or GSM-R? gsm-r
        man_made mast/tower Mast/Tower Indicates this is a mast/tower. See Tag:man_made=mast and Tag:man_made=tower for the differences between a mast and a tower.
        tower:type communication Transmission Tower Indicates this node is a transmission tower.
        communication:gsm-r yes/no GSM-R Indicates that this tower transmits GSM-R.

        Turntable

        A device that rotates locomotives to switch them to different tracks, or to reorient them. Can be mapped as a node or area, with area being preferable.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused and abandoned turntable can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:railway = turntable ).
        railway turntable Turntable A device that rotates locomotives to switch them to different tracks, or to reorient them. Can be mapped as a node or area, with area being preferrable.

        Hot Box and other Defect Detectors

        Put a node at the position where the defect detector is located. The node should be part of the track.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway defect_detector defect detector
        ref <number> number number if existing
        defect_detector:hot_box yes/no hot boxes Does the gadget detect hot boxes?
        defect_detector:dragging yes/no dragging parts Does the gadget detect dragging parts?
        defect_detector:pantograph yes/no pantograph defects Does the gadget inspect pantograph quality?
        defect_detector:flat_wheel yes/no wheel flats Does the gadget inspect wheel roundness?

        Automatic equipment identification

        A device at the track that identifies/scans passing rolling stock. Only found in the US, around 3000 exist there. See Wikipedia.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway aei Automatic equipment identification A device at the track that identifies/scans passing rolling stock. Only found in the US, around 3000 exist there. Place as a Node on the track.
        ref <number> Reference Number A reference number for the detector.

        Transfer Table

        A device that moves horizontally to transfer locomotives to different tracks. Can be mapped as a node or area, with area being preferable. Make sure to map the entire area it can move.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused and abandoned transfer table can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:railway = traverser ).
        railway traverser Transfer Table A device that moves horizontally to transfer locomotives to different tracks. Can be mapped as a node or area, with area being preferrable. Make sure to map the entire area it can move.

        Loading Rack

        A loading rack for filling and draining tank railcars with oil, fuel, liquefied gas etc. Should be mapped on a part of railway track where it locates.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway loading_rack Loading Rack A loading rack for filling and drainin tank railcars.
        ref <number> Reference Number A reference number for the loading rack.

        Loading Dock

        A loading dock or loading point for moving goods on or off of railcars. For purposes of mapping, a platform for freight. Can be mapped as a node, way, or area. Ideally mapped as an area.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway loading_ramp Loading Ramp/Loading Dock A loading dock or loading point for moving goods on or off of railcars. For purposes of mapping, a platform for freight. Can be mapped as a node, way, or area. Ideally mapped as an area.
        name <name> Name A name for the loading dock for the renderer, as well as navigational aid.
        lit yes/no Lighting Is the platform lit? no
        surface asphalt/paving_stones/concrete etc. Ramp Surface The material the surface of the ramp is. See Key:surface for more values.
        operator <operator> Operator Operator of the loading dock.
        height <height> Platform Height The height of the platform in meters. If using feet, prefix with ft: .
        area yes/no Area Is the platform mapped an an area? yes

        Loading tower

        A mechanism under which freight cars are shunted and then automatically loaded. Usually found at quarries or grain elevators. Should be mapped as a node. Example image.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway loading_tower Loading tower A loading tower

        Loading Rack

        A loading rack for filling and draining tank railcars with oil, fuel, liquefied gas etc. Should be mapped on a part of railway track where it locates.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway loading_rack Loading Rack A loading rack for filling and drainin tank railcars.
        ref <number> Reference Number A reference number for the loading rack.

        Unloading hole

        A hole between the rails through which bulk goods such as rocks or grain are automatically unloaded from hopper cars. Commonly found at industrial customers. Example image Map as a node.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway unloading_hole Unloading hole A unloading hole
        ref <number> Reference Number A reference number for the loading rack.

        Rotary car dumper

        A rotary car dumper or wagon tippler (UK) is a mechanism used for unloading certain railroad cars such as hopper cars, gondolas or lorries. It holds the rail car to a section of track and then rotates the track and car together to dump out the contents. Often found at larger industrial sites, such as (coal) power plants or sawmills. See also Wikipedia.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway car_dumper Rotary car dumper An rotary car dumper

        Crane

        A crane next to or above the track in order to load or unload goods, such as coal or shipping containers. If it is a fixed crane, it can be tagged as a node or an area, with area being preferred. If a Gantry Crane, it can be tagged as a node at the center of the track or a way to the side of the track, with the way being preferred.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        man_made crane Crane A crane next to or above the track in order to load or unload goods, such as coal or shipping containers.
        crane:type floor-mounted_crane/portal_crane Crane Type If a fixed crane, it is a floor-mounted_crane . If it is a Gantry Crane, it is a portal_crane .
        crane:mobile no/rail Crane Mobility Enter no if it is a fixed position crane, or rail if it is a Gantry Crane.
        crane:height <height> Crane Height Crane height in meters. If using feet, prefix with ft: . Not required.
        crane:maxradius <length> Boom Length/Working Range In meters, how long the crane's boom is or how far it can move horizontally. If using feet, prefix with ft: . Not required.
        name <name> Crane Name If the crane has a specific name. Not required.
        operator <operator> Crane Operator The operator of the crane.

        Weighbridge

        A weighbridge is a weighing scale used to weigh locomotives or rolling stock.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway track_scale Weighbridge A weighbridge is a weighing scale used to weigh locomotives or rolling stock. It is mapped as a node on the track at the center of the scale.

        Transporter Car

        A type of railroad car designed for loading different gauge railroad equipment on it, to allow said equipment to traverse a different gauge railway. This is usually a lager gauge over a smaller gauge.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway carrier_truck_pit Transporter Car A type of railroad car designed for loading different gauge railroad equipment on it, to allow said equipment to traverse a different gauge railway. This is usually a lager gauge over a smaller gauge. It is mapped as a node on the infrastructure that allows the railroad cars to load onto the transporter car.

        Bogie Exchange

        A facility where the gauge of a car can be changed by exchanging its wheels and axles.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway gauge_conversion Bogie Exchange A facility where the gauge of a car can be changed by exchanging its wheels and axles. It is tagged as a node on the junction of the larger and narrower track.

        A gate that blocks the track, such as at a factory.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        barrier gate Gate A gate that blocks the track, such as at a factory. This is mapped as a node on the track. For multiple tracks, map a node on each track.
        access private/no Access The restrictions on access for the gate. access=private should be used for private corporations and companies, and access=no should be for government-run facilities.

        Railway museums

        A museum that exhibits and restores various aspects of railroad history, including locomotives, rolling stock, and signalling equipment. It can be mapped as a node or an area, with an area being preferred.

        If mapped as an area, map the museum grounds. If a node, map the node at the center of the museum grounds.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway museum Railway Museum A museum that exhibits and restores various aspects of railroad history, including locomotives, rolling stock, and signalling equipment. It can be mapped as a node or an area, with an area being preferred.
        tourism museum Museum Indicates this is a museum.
        name <name> Name The name of the museum
        area no/yes Area Tag if this is an area.
        image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the museum (If possible, images from Wikimedia Commons should be used).
        wikipedia <lang>:<article name> Wikipedia article Article on Wikipedia. Tag the key in the format <language_code>:<Article name>, for example "wikipedia=en:Illinois Railway Museum".

        Container Terminal

        A transshipment facility for shipping containers. For uses to ORM, this is between ships and rail, or rail and truck. Mapped as a node or an area, with an area being preferred.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        man_made container_terminal Container Terminal General tag for a container terminal (can exist without rail transport).
        railway container_terminal Container Terminal Tag for a container terminal (this one has to involve rail transport).
        landuse industrial Industrial Land uses for industrial purposes
        name <name> Name The name of the container terminal.
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of the container terminal.
        owner <owner> Owner The owner of the container terminal.
        wikipedia <lang>:<article name> Wikipedia article Article on Wikipedia. Tag the key in the format <language_code>:<Article name>, for example "wikipedia=en:Port Jersey".

        Car Shuttle

        A loading ramp to load cars onto trains. It is mapped as a node on the ramp where the access road meets the railroad track.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway car_shuttle Car Shuttle A loading ramp to load cars onto trains.
        name <name> Name Name of the loading ramp.
        uic_ref UIC-Code The UIC (International Union of Railways) Code for this station.
        uic_name <name> UIC-Name The UIC (International Union of Railways) Name for this station.
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of this station.
        network <network> Network The rail network to which this station belongs to.
        image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the loading ramp (If possible, images from Wikimedia Commons should be used).

        Rolling Highway

        Loading ramp to load trucks onto trains. It is mapped as a node on the ramp where the access road meets the railroad track.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway rolling_highway Rolling Highway A loading ramp to load trucks onto trains.
        name <name> Name Name of the loading ramp.
        uic_ref UIC-Code The UIC (International Union of Railways) Code for this station.
        uic_name <name> UIC-Name The UIC (International Union of Railways) Name for this station.
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of this station.
        network <network> Network The rail network to which this station belongs to.
        image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the loading ramp (If possible, images from Wikimedia Commons should be used).

        Train Ferry

        A service to transfer rail cars across water. In this case, this can be either a train ferry or car float. This can be mapped as a way or a relation.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        route ferry Ferry Indicates this route is a ferry.
        railway ferry Train Ferry Specifies the ferry route as one transporting railroad cars.
        name <name> Name Name of the ferry route.
        operator <operator> Operator Operator of the ferry route.

        Ferry Loading Dock

        Loading dock to load railroad cars onto a ferry. It is mapped as a node where the track and ferry route meet.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        amenity ferry_terminal Ferry Terminal Tag that says this is a ferry terminal.
        name <name> Name Name of the ferry terminal.
        uic_ref UIC-Code The UIC (International Union of Railways) Code for this terminal.
        uic_name <name> UIC-Name The UIC (International Union of Railways) Name for this terminal.
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of this terminal.
        railway ferry_terminal Railway Ferry Terminal Specifies this as a railway ferry terminal.

        Station buildings

        The building of a railway station. Mapped as an area.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused and abandoned station buildings can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:building = train_station ).
        building train_station Station Building A building of a railroad station.
        start_date <date> Date of opening Date the building was put into service. For formatting, see start_date =*.
        end_date <date> Date of closing Date the building was taken out of service. For formatting, see end_date =*.
        image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the Station Building. (If possible, images from Wikimedia Commons should be used).
        ele <elevation> Elevation The height of the building above sea level, in meters. If using feet, prefix with ft: .

        Companies with rail connection

        Factories, industrial plants, or other companies that have railway access. Please tag all buildings at the factory as having rail connections If the building exists previously, please just add the below tags, if they aren't already present. The tracks themselves should be tagged with usage = industrial . The purpose of all of this is to specifically highlight these buildings in ORM.

        The following tags are important to OpenRailwayMap rendering industrial sites specifically:

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        landuse industrial/commercial Landuse If the area is used for industrial purposes, or commercial purposes.
        man_made works Factory An industrial production plant, also known as a factory. Only tag if it is a factory.
        name <name> Factory Name The name of the factory.

        The following tags are helpful in OpenStreetMap at large, and should be added if not present and are known values:

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        Note: Disused and abandoned buildings can be mapped by adding the prefix disused: or abandoned: (Example: disused:building = yes ).
        operator <operator> Operator The operator of this factory. May very well be the same as the owner.
        owner <owner> Owner The owner of this factory. May very well be the same as operator.
        building yes/commercial/industrial/warehouse Building Type The use of the specific building. Tag as yes if type is not known.
        brand <brand_name> Brand Name The name of the brand of the product produced or sold here.
        start_date <date> Date of opening Date the building was put into service. For formatting, see start_date =*.
        end_date <date> Date of closing Date the building was taken out of service. For formatting, see end_date =*.
        image <URL> Image The URL of an image of the Building. (If possible, images from Wikimedia Commons should be used).
        ele <elevation> Elevation The height of the building above sea level, in meters. If using feet, prefix with ft: .
        wikipedia <lang>:<article name> Wikipedia article Article on Wikipedia. Tag the key in the format <language_code>:<Article name>, for example "wikipedia=en:Highland Park Ford Plant".
        architect <name> Architect Name If the building had a single architect, put their name here, or if an architect firm, put that firm's name here.

        Electrical Facilities

        For tagging of how a track is electrified and its voltage see the track section of this page.

        Catenary Mast

        Catenary masts can be mapped and tagged with power = catenary_mast .

        Joints

        Joints are points of catenary or electric rail which disconnect two electric circuit.

        Key Value Property Description Default value
        railway:electricity joint Joint This point in catenary or electric rail disconnects two electric circuit.
        railway:electricity:jumpering jumpered/possible/no status of jumpering Describes default status of this joint. Use jumpered if this joint does usually not disconnect two sections. Use possible if this joint usually disconnects two electric circuits but can be jumpered if one power supply fails or a electric train has a breakdown in an insulated section. Use no if this joint can never be jumpered.

        Neutral sections

        Track section where the catenary is grounded (can be found at joints) and where the main switch has to be turned off, should be tagged with railway:main_switch_off = yes .

        Track sections where pantograph has to be lowered

        Track section where the pantograph has to be lowered (e.g. moveable bridges) should be tagged with railway:lower_pantograph_section = yes .

        Power Supply

        Power from a power line is supplied at this point into catenary or electric rail. Use railway = power_supply . It is tagged onto nodes of a track.


        Benefits of RPA

        1. Large numbers of the process can easily have automated.
        2. Cost are reduced significantly as the RPA takes care of repetitive task and saves precious time and resources.
        3. Programming skills are not needed to configure a software robot. Thus, any non-technical staff can set up a bot or even record their steps to automate the process.
        4. Robotic process automation support and allows all regular compliance process, with error-free auditing.
        5. The robotic software can rapidly model and deploy the automation process.
        6. The defects are tracked for each test case story and the sprint.
        7. Effective, seamless Build & Release Management
        8. Real time visibility into bug/defect discovery
        9. There is no human business which means there is no need for time for the requirement of training.
        10. Software robots do not get tired. It increases which helps to increase the scalability.

        Disadvantages of RPA:

        1. The bot is limited to the speed of the application
        2. Even small changes made in the automation application will need the robots to be reconfigured.