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Which monitor for working on printable maps?

Which monitor for working on printable maps?


I have a 24" monitor with a resolution of 1920x1080. Mostly I'm working on printable maps in QGIS. The size of some labels is sometimes smaller then 5mm on the final printed map. At my monitor this labels are not readable (as you can (not) see on the screenshot below).

Screenshot from canvas in scale 1:75000:

Is there a (software-)way to enlarge the view on my monitor or do I have to buy a monitor with a better resolution? Which one would you recommend?


What OS are you running? Windows, Mac OS and Linux all have ways of optimizing the display, which can sometimes make a huge difference to text rendering. Your OS will likely have a way of temporarily enlarging the display to view detail. It sure beats using “Zoom Previous” all the time on a complex QGIS map.

If you can borrow or buy a screen calibrator, that can make a helpful difference to screen contrast. Most displays have a very cold blue colour cast, and calibration will pull some extra shades out of the murk.

Update: For Ubuntu:

  • For better text rendering, try Infinality.
  • Compiz has zoom functions under Accessibility; I can never remember where the Compiz Config Manager lives these days, though.
  • For screen colour calibration, I have had great success with a ColorHug.

I think, buying big monitors are not a solution for this kind of problem. If you are serious about the quality of printed map I suggest you to use any graphics or design software (ie. Abobe Illustrator). Assign each set of lebels to different layers according to their font size.

Try Avenza's Map Publisher sometime.


In my opinion no amount of screen calibration will help with this issue.

After some testing, it seems like the only way to see these small labels in more detail before exporting the map is by zooming closer in the Print Composer. Even 1pt sized labels become readable that way.


Maps and Geographic Information Systems

Bing Maps
Bing maps often provide different imagery from Google Maps. Their street view is not as extensive, but they do offer an oblique "bird's eye" view.

d-maps
Over 29,000 outline maps of the world, continents, countries and more. All downloadable in six graphic formats.

Google Maps
View basic or custom maps and local business information, including business locations, contact information, and driving directions. Click and drag maps to view adjacent sections immediately. View satellite images of your desired location that you can zoom and pan. Some areas include traffic information and street-level views.

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Outline Maps
Download political outline maps, with or without labels.

National Geographic Outline Maps
Create outline maps of states, countries and regions. Add lines, text and markers.

P & P World Maps
Zoom in, paint colored lines, add text, color fill countries. Then download, print or share.

Wundermap
Weather Underground's interactive map of current weather conditions.

Scribble Maps
Using Google Maps, this application allows you to add custom images and overlays, place text and markers, create custom widgets, export to Google My Maps or Google Earth, and save in various formats.

MAPme
Using Google Maps as a base, create your own maps with text, lines, added photos and more. Share with friends and allow others to edit the map.

PAT: The Free, Open Source Portable Atlas
An online atlas of public domain maps of 238 countries (with ISO country codes) and 46 regions. The maps may be downloaded and used freely. Individual maps may be downloaded or you can download zip files of all countries, all regions, or half-size maps

Missouri Department of Transportation Highway Map
Order a free copy of the official Missouri Map from the Department of Transportation. A link to the PDF version is also available.

Google Maps
View basic or custom maps and local business information, including business locations, contact information, and driving directions. Click and drag maps to view adjacent sections immediately. View satellite images of your desired location that you can zoom and pan. Some areas include traffic information and street-level views.

Rand McNally Road Atlas: United States, Canada and Mexico Atlases G1201.P2 R365
Located in Reference Call number: Atlases G1201.P2 R365 2014

Kirksville and Adair County, Missouri

City of Kirksville
Click on Maps in the left side of this website. Included are: city right of way floodplain hike/bike trail historic properties/sites Kirk-Tran public transportation routes points of interest snow routes street map traffic count trash schedule zoning map.

Truman State University Map

Adair County, Missouri Map

Missouri Census Data Center 2010 Profiles Menu
Get basic demographic information from the 2010 Census using a variety of geographic types. Uses a simple menu-based interface.

Missouri County Health Rankings and Roadmaps
Has overall health rankings by county. It also includes statistics on length of life, quality of life, health behaviors clinical care social and economic factors physical environment for each county.

Missouri Department of Natural Resources Geographic Information Systems
Includes theme-based interactive maps check location coordinates tool GIS data air quality maps archaeology viewer (login required) architectural surveys National Register Historic Districts and Sites hazardous substance sites geosciences technical resources abandoned mines industrial mineral mines impaired waters animal feeding operations water quality watersheds.

Missouri Legislative Districts Map

Missouri School Districts Map

Missouri Spatial Data Information Service (MSDIS) Geoportal
Has a geoportal to many types of geospatial data about Missouri.

Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection - Missouri Maps
Collection of digitized maps.

CIA World Factbook
Contains extensive information on all the countries of the world.https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/CIA World Factbook
Contains extensive information on all the countries of the world.https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/

Ezilon Maps
Continent and country maps including road maps, physical maps and political maps.

FAO Country Profiles and Mapping Information
Information on natural resources, economic situation, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and global issues for each country. News articles and relevant publications for country are linked.

National Geographic MapMaker Interactive
The map maker allows you to add and remove layers depicting physical systems, human systems, environment and society.

Nations Online
Political and Administrative Maps of continents, countries and regions, as well as online resources of maps, map collections, reference maps, and world maps.

Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection
University of Texas at Austin contains over 44,000 digitized maps from around the world.

World Atlas
Includes map, geography facts and statistics, country flags and time zones.

World Soil Resources Map Index
Global maps of soil regions, major land stresses, desertification, water erosion and other maps related to natural resources.

American FactFinder
Part of the U.S. Census web site, American FactFinder "provides detailed data sets related to population, housing, economics, industry, and geographic data. . .Contains quality video tutorials with attached written transcripts." Several other differences between this web site and the old American FactFinder include being able to "create and customize maps, modify statistical tables . . .and save data in a presentation format with notes and footnotes or in files designed for spreadsheet software. . .The information stored here is crucial to researchers." Bruns, C.W., California State University-Fullerton. Choice Reviews Online. July, 2011. Web. 9 Aug. 2012.

American Memory Map Collections - Library of Congress
Maps grouped by collection: Cities and Towns Conservation and Environment Discovery and Exploration Cultural Landscapes Military Battles and Campaigns and Transportation and Communication.

Atlas of Rural and Small Town America
Data includes four broad categories of socioeconomic factors: People, Jobs, Agriculture and County Classification.

Census Data Mapper
The Census Data Mapper is a web mapping application intended to provide users with a simple interface to view, save and print county-based demographic maps of the United States. The data are from the 2010 Census.

Food Access Research Atlas
Presents a spatial overview of food access indicators for low-income and other census tracts using different measures of supermarket accessibility Provides food access data for populations within census tracts and Offers census-tract-level data on food access that can be downloaded for community planning or research purposes.

Libre Map Project
Map and GIS Data by state. View the entire list of USGS Digital Raster Graphic Maps by state.

National Map
Provides data visualization and download of all eight of the National Map Data sets and US Topo products.

Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection
University of Texas at Austin contains over 44,000 digitized maps from around the world.

United States Energy Information Administration
Maps and data on coal, electricity & nuclear, oil & gas, renewable energy. World maps on energy are also included.

United States Geological Survey - Maps, Imagery and Publications
This massive site has topographic maps, historical topographic maps, make your own map, aerial photographs, satellite images and GIS data. Some of it you have to buy.

Weather Maps from the National Weather Service
Includes surface maps with isobars and/or fronts, surface maps with satellite composites, surface temperature, dew-point temperature, snow cover, snow depth and the jet stream.

Army Map Service Topographic Map Series from the Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection
Many countries available at 1:250k scale in JPG format, published between the 1940s and 1960s.

Geologic Atlas of the United States
A set of 227 folios published by the USGS between 1894 and 1945.

Historical Topographic Maps - USGS

Topographic Maps of Northeast Missouri
These are print maps located in Pickler Memorial Library at Truman State University.The link gives the location and call numbers.

TopoZone
Search Topographic Maps & Aerial Photos by State or Province.

United States Quadrangles - Maps for America
Digital topographic maps from the USGS in 7.5-minute quadrangle format.

USGS Map Store
Find, order, or download free Topographic Maps. The Topographic Maps are free.

Historical Missouri Maps
Adair County, Missouri Historical Maps
These are print maps located in Pickler Memorial Library at Truman State University.The link gives the location and call numbers.

Atlas of Historical County Boundaries
The interactive maps make use of the date-coding incorporated in the county boundary data. The maps allow the user to select any date and display the county configuration at that date. Several additional map layers are provided, including modern county seats, unsuccessful county proposals, modern county boundaries, and state boundaries. Each of these layers can be toggled on or off by the user.

Historic Plat Books
This is a collection of 114 Missouri County plat books published by W.W. Hixson & Co published during the early 20th century.

Historic Quadrangles
Early quadrangle maps of Missouri, dating from 1906 to 1961. Scale of 1:62,500.

Historic St. Louis Maps by Washington University
The 19th-century St. Louis fire insurance maps are an important source of historical information to study the growth and development of post-Civil War St. Louis. Originally created for the fire insurance industry, these maps provide the most complete visual record of the evolving built environment in St. Louis, covering commercial, industrial, and residential neighborhoods.

Historical Maps of Missouri (1870-1925)
From the University of Alabama. There is also a link to Historic Quadrangles of Missouri

Kirksville, Missouri Historical Maps
These are print maps located in Pickler Memorial Library at Truman State University. The link gives the location call numbers.

Lewis & Clark Across Missouri
Specific campsite maps, photo-realistic images of important river landmarks, animated virtual Missouri River travel, and an interactive map server offering various layers of geographical data on the Expedition's outward and homeward journeys joined with the natural and cultural history of the Missouri River corridor are all currently offered here.

Lloyd's Official Map of Missouri 1861
Lloyd's official map of Missouri drawn and engraved from actual surveys for the Land Office Department.


Missouri Highway Map Archive
Highway maps for Missouri from 1926 to the present from the Missouri Department of Transportation.

Missouri Maps - Kansas City Public Library

Panoramic Maps 1847-1929
Panoramic maps of several towns in Missouri.

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps
The Sanborn Fire Insurance Map Company, established in 1867, compiled and published maps of U.S. cities and towns for the fire insurance industry to assess fire risk. Documenting the layout of 390 Missouri cities from 1883 to 1951, the 1283 maps in the collection are an invaluable research tool for urban historians, architectural historians, environmentalists, genealogists and preservationists.

Topographic Maps of Northeast Missouri
These are print maps located in Pickler Memorial Library at Truman State University.The link gives the location and call numbers. 1895 U.S. Atlas
State and county maps scanned from an 1895 atlas by Rand McNally.

Historical United States and World Maps

American Memory Map Collections - Library of Congress
Maps grouped by collection: Cities and Towns Conservation and Environment Discovery and Exploration Cultural Landscapes Military Battles and Campaigns and Transportation and Communication.

American Revolution and Its Era
Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies, 1750-1789

Atlas of Historical County Boundaries
The interactive maps make use of the date-coding incorporated in the county boundary data. The maps allow the user to select any date and display the county configuration at that date. Several additional map layers are provided, including modern county seats, unsuccessful county proposals, modern county boundaries, and state boundaries. Each of these layers can be toggled on or off by the user.

Civil War Maps
A digital portal bringing together materials from three premier collections: the Library of Congress Geography and Map Division, the Virginia Historical Society, and the Library of Virginia.

David Rumsey Map Collection
An extensive collection of online maps, this link will direct you to those of Missouri. You can then narrow your search by type of map, location or cartographer.

Geologic Atlas of the United States
A set of 227 folios published by the USGS between 1894 and 1945.

Historical Topographic Maps
Over 200,000 USGS Topographic Maps dating back to 1884.

HyperCities
HyperCities is a collaborative research and educational platform for traveling back in time to explore the historical layers of city spaces. The site has geo-referenced historical maps for Los Angeles, New York, Chicago, Rome, Lima, Ollantaytambo, Berlin, Tel Aviv, Tehran, Saigon, Toyko, Shanghai, Seoul.

Mapping the National Parks
Documents the history, cultural aspects and geological formations of areas that eventually became National Parks. The collection consists of approximately 200 maps dating from the 17th century to the present, reflecting early mapping of the areas that would become four National Parks, as well as the parks themselves.

National Atlases of the United States 1870,1880,1890 and 1970

National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS)
Provides, free of charge, aggregate census data and GIS-compatible boundary files for the United States between 1790 and 2000.

NOAA Historical Map & Chart Collection
The collection of over 35,000 scanned images - covering offshore and onshore sites - includes some of the Nation's earliest nautical charts, bathymetric maps, city plans, and Civil War battlefield maps.

Norman B. Leventhal Map Center
Digitized maps dating back to the 1st century up to present.

Old Maps Online
Search for online digital historical maps across numerous different collections via a geographical search. Search by typing a place-name or by clicking in the map window, and narrow by date. The search results provide a direct link to the map image on the website of the host institution.

World Antiquarian Maps
From the New York Public Library. Scroll down past the New York maps to view World Antiquarian Maps.

American FactFinder
Part of the U.S. Census web site, American FactFinder "provides detailed data sets related to population, housing, economics, industry, and geographic data. . .Contains quality video tutorials with attached written transcripts." Several other differences between this web site and the old American FactFinder include being able to "create and customize maps, modify statistical tables . . .and save data in a presentation format with notes and footnotes or in files designed for spreadsheet software. . .The information stored here is crucial to researchers." Bruns, C.W., California State University-Fullerton. Choice Reviews Online. July, 2011. Web. 9 Aug. 2012.

Cartographic Boundary Files
Generalized extracts of the TIGER line files for several administrative areas (i.e., states, counties, zip codes) and census areas (i.e. block groups, tracts) in the US from 1990, 2000 and 2010.

Dataverse
"The Dataverse Network is an open source application to publish, share, reference, extract and analyze research data. It facilitates making data available to others, and allows you to replicate others work. Researchers, data authors, publishers, data distributors, and affiliated institutions all receive appropriate credit."

Free GIS Data

Geospatial Platform
Provides shared and trusted geospatial data, services, and applications for use by government agencies, their partners and the public. Must register to use.

GISDataDepot

Harvard Geospatial Library
A collection of 6,871 worldwide and regional geographic data layers, scanned historic maps and associated descriptive information that can be searched, mapped online, and downloaded for use for use with GIS software.

John R. Borchert Map Library - University of Minnesota
List of GIS resources, both national and regional.

MAGIRT Map and Geospatial Resources
Created by the Map and Geospatial Information Round Table of the American Library Association.

Map and Geographic Information Center - University of Connecticut
MAGIC has a large collection of digitized historical maps of Connecticut, Northeast United States, New England, and United States. Most can be downloaded at high-resolution the center is working on geo-referenced versions for Google Earth.

Missouri Spatial Data Information Service (MSDIS) Geoportal
Has a geoportal to many types of geospatial data about Missouri.

National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS)
Provides, free of charge, aggregate census data and GIS-compatible boundary files for the United States between 1790 and 2000.

National Weather Service. National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center. Archived Data Sets

Natural Earth
Vector and raster map data at 1:10m, 1:50m and 1:110m scales.

Open GeoPortal
OpenGeoportal.org is a new group of geospatial professionals, developers, and librarians working together on a collaboratively developed, open source, federated web application to discover, preview, and retrieve geospatial data. It is also a collaborative effort to share resources and best practices in the areas of application development, metadata, data sharing, data licensing, and data sources. Must register to use.

TIGER Line Shapefiles
Extracts of US Census Bureau's TIGER line files for all legal, administrative, and statistical areas in the US, updated annually.

EastView Geospatial
East View offers a wide range of geospatial products, and are moving into offering cloud-based storage of, and potential upload of, GIS data. You have to buy this information.

ESRI Map Services
Includes imagery, street, and topography base maps, shaded relief, and physical maps. You have to buy this information.

Geospatial Data Gateway - USDA
The Geospatial Data Gateway (GDG) is the One Stop Source for environmental and natural resources data, at anytime, from anywhere, to anyone. The Gateway allows you to choose your area of interest, browse and select data from our catalog, customize the format, and have it downloaded or shipped on CD or DVD. You have to buy this information.


Monitoring

Global, national and regional networks recording earthquakes and crustal movements, maps, station information, and realtime seismic waveforms.

Distribution of Global Seismographic Network (GSN) stations in 2015. (Public domain.)

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center
The NEIC determines the location and size of all significant earthquakes worldwide, disseminates the information immediately, maintains an online database of seismic information, and performs research.

ANSS - Advanced National Seismic System
The United States seismic network.

GSN - Global Seismographic Network
The worldwide seismic network.

Volunteer Monitoring
Opportunities for you to host a seismometer in your private home, business, public building or school.

Seismogram Displays
Real-time waveforms from all over the world.

NSMP - National Strong Motion Project
Seismic stations for strong motion records on the ground and in man-made structures.

Crustal Deformation Monitoring
Monitoring of slow crustal movements.


Environmental Services

The DPS-ESG Water Quality Management Division (WQMD) maintains an environmental geographic information system (GIS) to provide maps and spatial analysis to a wide variety of organizations and individuals involved in watershed and water quality management activities. The WQMD GIS staff provides many services consisting of map production, data development, data analysis, spatial analysis, and graphic production.

The WQMD GIS contains base map features (i.e., roads, political boundaries, river systems, etc.) and thematic data such as watershed boundaries, land use, soils, water quality monitoring locations, wetland delineations, and other environmental data sets. Additionally, the WQMD GIS has several aerial imagery data sets including 2006 oblique aerial photography (Pictometry) and the 2010 aerial imagery produced by the Southeast Michigan Council of Governments (SEMCOG).

For additional information about DPS-ESG Water Quality Management Division GIS data and services, please contact the GIS manager at (734) 326-3936 or by email at [email protected] .

Maps of the Watersheds within Wayne County

A watershed is all the land area that drains into a river system. Wayne County lies within seven separate watersheds, the largest being the Rouge. Other watersheds include: Lake St. Clair, Detroit River, Ecorse Creek, Combined Downriver, Huron River, and Swan Creek.


Electronic Maps and Geographic Information Systems

1. Street Atlas (Delorme) CD-ROM $45.00
Easy-to-use, well designed program which will find a place anywhere in the U.S. by name, zip code, area code or latitude/longitude. Search for and highlight street addresses, display zip codes and boundaries. Features are labeled. Can add text as note, or preset for street names.
Delorme Maps (http://www.delorme.com)

2. AAA Map'n Go (Delorme) CD-ROM $39.00
Combines maps of North America with AAA's travel database. Choose quickest, shortest or preferred route from one point to another. Print travel plans and strip maps. Includes sightseeing and lodgings information.
Delorme Maps (http://www.delorme.com)

3. Global Explorer (Delorme) CD-ROM
No longer available. Electronic atlas with world-wide coverage. Gazetteer to locate a place or a geographic feature. No print function not completely up-to-date.

4. Encarta Virtual Globe (Microsoft) CD-ROM $54.95
Excellent world atlas for Windows 95.
Encarta Virtual Globe(http://encarta.msn.com/evg98/evghome.asp)

5. Maps 'n Facts (Broderbund) CD-ROM $34.95
World atlas with physical, political and statistical maps of countries. Includes statistical data and maps of groups of countries. Can make customized maps.
Broderbund (http://www.broderbund.com)

6. Animap Plus County Boundary Historical Atlas (Gold Bug) Diskette.
Shows changes in county boundaries in U.S. from seventeenth century to present. Gold Bug, P.O. Box 588, Alamo, CA 94507-0588. 510-838-MAPS
Goldbug Maps(http://www.goldbug.com)

7. Centennia (Clockwork) Diskette $35.00
Guide to the history of Europe and the Middle East from 1000 AD. to the present. Detailed, dynamic maps. Who? what? where?
Clockwork: PO Box 148035, Chicago, IL 60614 312-281-3132


This is a special Women’s History Month guest post by Giselle Aviles, the 2019 Archaeological Research Associate in the Geography and Map Division. Giselle interviews Dr. Paulette Hasier, the first woman to serve as Chief of the Geography and Map Division since it was founded late in the nineteenth century. On one of my breaks from [&hellip]

Join us for GIS Day at the Library of Congress, Tuesday, November 14th, for a full day of talks highlighting GIS technology and its impact on the work of policymakers, researchers, and librarians on Capitol Hill and beyond! The GIS Day morning session will feature a keynote address by Congressman Mark Takano, of California, on [&hellip]


OC, ONC, and TPC

Airport Obstruction Ports, Operational Navigation Charts, and Tactical Navigation (Pilotage) Chart


Airport Obstruction Ports (OC/AOC) are maps about obstructional objects in an airport and the surrounding area. The date range for the phyiscal copies are the late 80's and the 90's. The NGS Aeronautical Survey has digital and updated copies of the maps in DNG format. There is a request to download a viewer in order to use the informaiton. The AOC provides data for computing maximum take-off and landing weights, for establishing instrument approach and departure procedures, for engineering studies relative to obstruction clearance and improvements in airport facilities. Map cabinet 4, drawers 2-11.Sudoc C 55.411/3: date

Operational Navigational Charts (ONC) are a series of worldwide small-scale (1:1,000,000) aeronautical charts that provide topographic information for air navigation. They are designed for medium-altitude, high-speed visual and radar navigation and are also used for operational planning and intelligence briefings. The global information available from the ONCs enables scientists to study the state of the global biosphere and to perform environmental monitoring, planning and crisis management, data intercomparison, and model testing. The more current digital maps are relabel as ENC, eletronic navigation charts. Map Cabinet 4, Sudoc D 5.354:ONC [Chart #]


1. Geography Realm

California, United States About Blog Geography Realm (formerly Geo Lounge) is an information site about all things geography. Find information here about physical and human geography as well as guides for learning about geography and developing a career in geography. Frequency 1 post / week Blog geographyrealm.com
Twitter followers 8.4K ⋅ Social Engagement 3 ⓘ ⋅ Domain Authority 55 ⓘ ⋅ View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

2. New Geography

About Blog NewGeography.com is a site devoted to analyzing and discussing the places where we live and work. We want to know not only what is happening, but also how you, your company and your community can best adapt to rapidly changing conditions. We welcome your writing, your thoughts on the site, and your insights on economic development, metropolitan demographics, and community leadership. Frequency 6 posts / week Also in Urban Planning Blogs Blog newgeography.com/blogs
Facebook fans 6K ⋅ Twitter followers 6.6K ⋅ Domain Authority 66 ⓘ ⋅ Alexa Rank 472.2K ⓘ View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

3. The Geography

About Blog The Geography- Geography Blog. Geography is the science that studies the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of the Earth. Frequency 13 posts / month Blog the-geography.blogspot.com
Facebook fans 276K ⋅ Domain Authority 23 ⓘ ⋅ View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

4. Digital-Geography.com - GIS, geodata, maps and anything related!

Germany About Blog Digital-geography.com is a multilingual blog about GIS-tutorials, webmapping, statistics and much more out of the 'geosphere'. Frequency 2 posts / year Also in GIS Blogs Blog digital-geography.com
Facebook fans 10.2K ⋅ Twitter followers 2.9K ⋅ Social Engagement 18 ⓘ ⋅ Domain Authority 39 ⓘ ⋅ Alexa Rank 2M ⓘ View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

5. Brilliant Maps | Making Sense Of The World, One Map At A Time

London, England, United Kingdom About Blog Learn more about maps that will help you make sense of the world at Brilliant Maps. Frequency 1 post / quarter Since Dec 2014 Also in Map Blogs, UK Geography Blogs Blog brilliantmaps.com
Twitter followers 112.9K ⋅ Social Engagement 605 ⓘ ⋅ Domain Authority 63 ⓘ ⋅ Alexa Rank 393.7K ⓘ View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

6. Views of the World

Iceland About Blog Benjamin is a geographer educated at the Universities of Cologne & Bonn and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. HE is a Geographer and accidental cartographer. Rediscovering the world. Frequency 1 post / quarter Blog viewsoftheworld.net
Facebook fans 1.2K ⋅ Twitter followers 6.6K ⋅ Social Engagement 117 ⓘ ⋅ Domain Authority 55 ⓘ ⋅ Alexa Rank 1.9M ⓘ View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

7. Google Earth Blog

Raleigh, North Carolina, United States About Blog Google Earth Blog - The amazing things about Google Earth. Google Earth has revolutionized the ability to visualize geospatial information and has raised awareness about the importance of tying information to location. Frequency 1 post / day Blog gearthblog.com
Facebook fans 48.2K ⋅ Twitter followers 23K ⋅ Social Engagement 86 ⋅ Domain Authority 72 ⋅ Alexa Rank 623.4K View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

8. The New York Times - Geography

New York City, New York, United States About Blog We aim to create a space on NYTimes where readers can exchange intelligent and informed commentary that enhances the quality of our news and information. News about geography. Commentary and archival information about geography from The New York Times. Frequency 1 post / week Blog nytimes.com/topic/subject/ge..
Facebook fans 17M ⋅ Twitter followers 44.7M ⋅ Social Engagement 20.8K ⋅ Domain Authority 95 ⋅ Alexa Rank 105 View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

9. ScienceDaily - Geography News

Rockville, Maryland, United States About Blog ScienceDaily features breaking news about the latest scientific discoveries -- on everything from astrophysics to zoology. Visit ScienceDaily to read breaking news about the latest discoveries in science, health, the environment, and technology. Read the latest geographical research from universities and institutes around the world. Frequency 26 posts / week Blog sciencedaily.com/news/earth_..
Facebook fans 1.7M ⋅ Twitter followers 239.6K ⋅ Domain Authority 93 ⋅ Alexa Rank 5.5K View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

10. Library of Congress » Geography and Map

Washington, District of Columbia, United States About Blog Welcome to the blog for the Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress. The largest and most comprehensive cartographic collection in the world, the Geography and Map Division contains over six million maps in addition to a wide array of atlases, globes, raised relief models, archives, a vast collection of digital data and a GIS research center. Frequency 1 post / week Since Nov 2015 Blog blogs.loc.gov/maps
Facebook fans 404.2K ⋅ Twitter followers 1.2M ⋅ Social Engagement 17 ⋅ Domain Authority 93 ⋅ Alexa Rank 4.2K View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

11. University of Nottingham | Geography

Nottingham, England, United Kingdom About Blog This blog is produced by members of the School of Geography at the University of Nottingham. It is a place for highlighting our latest internationally-ranked research, discussing important contemporary geographical issues such as climate change, food security and water resources, and for recording members' activities such as participation in outreach events, conferences and policy debates. Frequency 3 posts / month Since Oct 2011 Blog blogs.nottingham.ac.uk/geogr..
Facebook fans 1.7K ⋅ Twitter followers 84K ⋅ Social Engagement 13 ⋅ Domain Authority 80 ⋅ Alexa Rank 11.3K View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

12. Geospatial World » 5G

United States About Blog Geospatial Media and Communications is an internationally accredited organization that provides networking and knowledge-sharing platforms for geospatial technology. Read some great geospatial blogs with posts from Geospatial Media staff and our guest bloggers. Get to know about GIS, Remote Sensing, UAV trends and more. Frequency 30 posts / week Since Feb 2017 Blog geospatialworld.net/tag/5g
Facebook fans 15.6K ⋅ Twitter followers 29.9K ⋅ Instagram Followers 1.5K ⋅ Domain Authority 70 ⋅ View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

13. University of Brighton | Studying Geography, Geology & Environment

Brighton, England, United Kingdom About Blog Welcome to the University of Brighton's blog. Follow us to keep up with articles on Geography, Geology & Environment. Frequency 1 post / week Since Jul 2014 Blog blogs.brighton.ac.uk/geography
Twitter followers 41.5K ⋅ Domain Authority 69 ⋅ Alexa Rank 74.5K View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

14. Internet Geography

Hull, England, United Kingdom About Blog Internet Geography - GCSE Geography resources to support teachers and students. Get help with revision and homework. Amazing photos and videos of geography. Provides free access to resources to support learners of Geography. Frequency 1 post / month Blog internetgeography.net/blog
Facebook fans 4.7K ⋅ Twitter followers 5.7K ⋅ Social Engagement 35 ⋅ Domain Authority 29 ⋅ Alexa Rank 212.5K View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

15. Canadian Geographic

Canada About Blog The authoritative source for all things geography, wildlife and environment, climate and energy, travel, culture and exploration in Canada, Canadian Geographic has been making Canada better known to Canada and the world since 1930. Frequency 7 posts / week Blog canadiangeographic.ca
Facebook fans 45K ⋅ Twitter followers 31.7K ⋅ Domain Authority 67 ⋅ Alexa Rank 365.6K View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

16. Anything Geospatial - AnyGeo

United States About Blog GISuser is a leading source of news and tips for the GIS, mapping, mobile, social location, and geospatial professional community. It is a community resource for the GIS, mapping, and location-based technology crowd Frequency 23 posts / year Blog blog.gisuser.com
Facebook fans 70 ⋅ Twitter followers 33.1K ⋅ Social Engagement 1 ⋅ Domain Authority 53 ⋅ Alexa Rank 155.7K View Latest Posts ⋅ Get Email Contact

17. Between the Poles

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada About Blog All about infrastructure and the impact of global climate change on how we manage our infrastructure. Geoff Zeiss has more than 20 years experience developing geospatial solutions for the utilities, communications, and public works industries. Frequency 1 post / week Since Feb 2006 Blog geospatial.blogs.com
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18. The Rural Blog

Kentucky, United States About Blog A digest of events, trends, issues, ideas and journalism from and about rural America, from the Institute for Rural Journalism and Community Issues, based at the University of Kentucky. Frequency 25 posts / week Also in Journalism Blogs Blog irjci.blogspot.com
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19. The Map Room | A weblog about maps

Shawville, Quebec, Canada About Blog The Map Room is a blog about maps by Jonathan Crowe that covers everything from antique map collecting to the latest in geospatial technology. Frequency 7 posts / month Since Aug 2011 Also in Cartography Blogs Blog maproomblog.com
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20. Weekly Geography Quiz

About Blog Quizwise is the work of Barry Lakeman, Andrew Bartle and Marjorie McKee. Barry researched and wrote the majority of the questions on the website. Tragically he passed away in 2011. His legacy is continued by his wife Marjorie who compiles and produces new content for Quizwise. Frequency 1 post / day Blog quizwise.com/geography-quiz/..
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21. Geography Education

About Blog Geography Education Supporting geography educators everywhere with current digital resources. Frequency 5 posts / quarter Blog geographyeducation.org
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22. Geography Directions

United Kingdom About Blog Welcome to Geography Directions. We host regular posts, content alerts, video files and news items from our team of news editors and other contributors. Frequency 3 posts / week Blog blog.geographydirections.com
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23. Maps4Kids

About Blog Our mission is to help children gain a greater understanding of the world through maps, geographic information and games. Frequency 1 post / year Blog maps4kids.com/blog
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24. Living Geography

Norfolk, Virginia, United States About Blog Dispatches from the classroom, and from life as a freelance Geographer. Frequency 4 posts / day Blog livinggeography.blogspot.com
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25. Turkana Basin Institute

Kenya About Blog Supporting scientific research in the Lake Turkana Basin in northern Kenya. Frequency 1 post / quarter Blog turkanabasin.org/geoblog-posts
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26. VerySpatial

Morgantown, West Virginia, United States About Blog Podcast and blog focusing on Geography and geospatial technologies. Frequency 1 post / week Blog veryspatial.com
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27. Spatially Adjusted

Tempe, Arizona, United States About Blog My name is James Fee, and I'm CTO of Cityzenith. Get information on Geospatial Technology, Web Mapping and Spatial Services. Frequency 3 posts / quarter Blog spatiallyadjusted.com
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28. CIGeography

About Blog CIGeography.blogspot.com brings you rich maps on contemporary issues like Geo-politics, Geo-defense, as well as Geo-economics. Our two-men team as already deliver 13 rich maps or infographics dealing with a large variety of subjects From Japanese nuclear installations to new naval powers in the South China Sea, as well as the Syrian civil war, and Edward Snowden's 'revelations'. Frequency 1 post / quarter Blog cigeography.blogspot.com
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29. Cultural Geography Blog

Norfolk, Virginia, United States About Blog Cultural Geography and Geography in the Media. For students and teachers of Geography. Frequency 4 posts / month Blog cultcha.blogspot.com
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30. Constant Geography

Kentucky, United States About Blog Focused essays on higher education administration, teaching, learning, technology, geography, geospatial education, book reviews Frequency 2 posts / quarter Blog constantgeography.com
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31. Geogteacher's Blog | Finding, writing and sharing Geography resources

United Kingdom About Blog Follow us to keep up with articles and resources on Geography from Geogteacher's Blog. Frequency 2 posts / month Since Oct 2017 Blog geogteacher.wordpress.com
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32. Geography Cat's Project Postcard

About Blog Geography Cat is one of the finest feline geographers you could ever meet. He is super smart at geography and loves to share his passion for the world, with the world. Frequency 1 post / week Blog geographycat.press
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33. King's College London | Geography

London, England, United Kingdom About Blog We are a leading UK geography department specialising in urban studies, environment & development, hazards & risk, & the study of Earth's environmental dynamics. Frequency 8 posts / year Since Aug 2013 Blog blogs.kcl.ac.uk/geography
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34. Environmental Geography

Bridgewater, Massachusetts, United States About Blog Geography asks three questions: Where is it? Why is it there? So what?. Geographers apply spatial understanding to problems in the real world. Frequency 3 posts / month Blog environmentalgeography.net
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35. The Guardian | Geography

London, England, United Kingdom About Blog Follow us to keep up with articles on Geography from the Guardian, the world's leading liberal voice. Frequency 1 post / month Blog theguardian.com/science/geog..
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36. Geography Now | For Geography Lovers

About Blog Welcome to Geography Now! This is the first and only Youtube Channel that actively attempts to cover profiles on every single country of the world. We are going to do them alphabetically so be patient if you are waiting for one that's down the road. Frequency 3 posts / month Since Oct 2014 Also in Geography Youtube Channels Blog youtube.com/user/GeographyNo..
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Indiana University’s annual GIS Day highlights the life-saving potential of maps, geographic modeling

BLOOMINGTON, Ind.—On November 28, Indiana University is set to celebrate the 20th anniversary of GIS Day—the annual worldwide celebration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology and its applications. The celebration will take place at the Herman B Wells Library lobby at IU Bloomington from noon𔃂pm.

Geographic Information Systems are the systems that help to predict things like hurricanes, tornados and the spread of disease through combining graphic characteristics or features in the world with detailed information about those features. These are then collated into a database referenced to geographic location.

The keynote will be delivered by Elaine Guidero, U.S. Geological Survey, “Mistakes I’ve made: Getting it right when it went wrong,” from noon-1pm

Through GIS, researchers and staff, nonprofits, businesses and government agencies are able to make effective, more-informed decisions in response to information presented in the database. These decisions could potentially save lives when it comes to natural phenomena.

GIS Day is a worldwide celebration of the GIS technology, and IU will take part in the celebrations again this year. GIS Day attendees will have a chance to learn more about GIS technology, meet GIS professionals and learn about internships and GIS careers.

Highlights for the day will include:

  • Keynote by Elaine Guidero, U.S. Geological Survey, “Mistakes I’ve made: Getting it right when it went wrong,” from noon-1pm
  • Information booths about new research
  • Google Earth Engine demo
  • Virtual Sphere and Science on a Sphere
  • Bloomington and Monroe County GIS data imagery
  • Training on GIS tools and topics

To learn more about GIS Day, visit: gisday.indiana.edu

About GIS
GIS is a multibillion-dollar industry employing hundreds of thousands of people worldwide. GIS converts the rows and columns in databases and spreadsheets to maps displaying locations for new businesses, routes for emergency responders and geological features for locating minerals, oil or gas. GIS technologies provide value to organizations of all sizes and users in almost every industry by supporting better decision-making, improved communication and greater efficiency.

About GIS at Indiana University
Indiana University staff provides support for GIS technologies on all Indiana University campuses, and contributes to state efforts in building a single map for Indiana. Indiana University's advanced computing and networking infrastructure serves as the foundation for state-of-the-art GIS instructional facilities. The Indiana University GIS community has access to enterprise GIS services, geospatial data libraries and professional software to support academic and research excellence in diverse fields.


Contents

Cartography or map-making is the study and practice of crafting representations of the Earth upon a flat surface (see History of cartography), and one who makes maps is called a cartographer.

Road maps are perhaps the most widely used maps today, and form a subset of navigational maps, which also include aeronautical and nautical charts, railroad network maps, and hiking and bicycling maps. In terms of quantity, the largest number of drawn map sheets is probably made up by local surveys, carried out by municipalities, utilities, tax assessors, emergency services providers, and other local agencies. Many national surveying projects have been carried out by the military, such as the British Ordnance Survey: a civilian government agency, internationally renowned for its comprehensively detailed work.

In addition to location information, maps may also be used to portray contour lines indicating constant values of elevation, temperature, rainfall, etc.

The orientation of a map is the relationship between the directions on the map and the corresponding compass directions in reality. The word "orient" is derived from Latin oriens, meaning east. In the Middle Ages many maps, including the T and O maps, were drawn with east at the top (meaning that the direction "up" on the map corresponds to East on the compass). The most common cartographic convention is that north is at the top of a map.

Maps not oriented with north at the top:

  • Maps from non-Western traditions have oriented a variety of ways. Old maps of Edo show the Japanese imperial palace as the "top", but also at the center, of the map. Labels on the map are oriented in such a way that you cannot read them properly unless you put the imperial palace above your head. [citation needed] European T and O maps such as the Hereford Mappa Mundi were centered on Jerusalem with East at the top. Indeed, before the reintroduction of Ptolemy's Geography to Europe around 1400, there was no single convention in the West. Portolan charts, for example, are oriented to the shores they describe.
  • Maps of cities bordering a sea are often conventionally oriented with the sea at the top.
  • Route and channel maps have traditionally been oriented to the road or waterway they describe. of the Arctic or Antarctic regions are conventionally centered on the pole the direction North would be towards or away from the center of the map, respectively. Typical maps of the Arctic have 0° meridian towards the bottom of the page maps of the Antarctic have the 0° meridian towards the top of the page. , also known as Upside-Down maps or South-Up maps, reverse the North is up convention and have south at the top. Ancient Africans including in Ancient Egypt utilized this orientation, as some maps in Brazil do today. [1] 's Dymaxion maps are based on a projection of the Earth's sphere onto an icosahedron. The resulting triangular pieces may be arranged in any order or orientation.

Many maps are drawn to a scale expressed as a ratio, such as 1:10,000, which means that 1 unit of measurement on the map corresponds to 10,000 of that same unit on the ground. The scale statement can be accurate when the region mapped is small enough for the curvature of the Earth to be neglected, such as a city map. Mapping larger regions, where the curvature cannot be ignored, requires projections to map from the curved surface of the Earth to the plane. The impossibility of flattening the sphere to the plane without distortion means that the map cannot have a constant scale. Rather, on most projections, the best that can be attained is an accurate scale along one or two paths on the projection. Because scale differs everywhere, it can only be measured meaningfully as point scale per location. Most maps strive to keep point scale variation within narrow bounds. Although the scale statement is nominal it is usually accurate enough for most purposes unless the map covers a large fraction of the earth. At the scope of a world map, scale as a single number is practically meaningless throughout most of the map. Instead, it usually refers to the scale along the equator.

Some maps, called cartograms, have the scale deliberately distorted to reflect information other than land area or distance. For example, this map (at the right) of Europe has been distorted to show population distribution, while the rough shape of the continent is still discernible.

Another example of distorted scale is the famous London Underground map. The basic geographical structure is respected but the tube lines (and the River Thames) are smoothed to clarify the relationships between stations. Near the center of the map, stations are spaced out more than near the edges of the map.

Further inaccuracies may be deliberate. For example, cartographers may simply omit military installations or remove features solely to enhance the clarity of the map. For example, a road map may not show railroads, smaller waterways, or other prominent non-road objects, and even if it does, it may show them less clearly (e.g. dashed or dotted lines/outlines) than the main roads. Known as decluttering, the practice makes the subject matter that the user is interested in easier to read, usually without sacrificing overall accuracy. Software-based maps often allow the user to toggle decluttering between ON, OFF, and AUTO as needed. In AUTO the degree of decluttering is adjusted as the user changes the scale being displayed.

Geographic maps use a projection to translate the three-dimensional real surface of the geoid to a two-dimensional picture. Projection always distorts the surface. There are many ways to apportion the distortion, and so there are many map projections. Which projection to use depends on the purpose of the map.

The various features shown on a map are represented by conventional signs or symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads. Those signs are usually explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. [2]

Some cartographers prefer to make the map cover practically the entire screen or sheet of paper, leaving no room "outside" the map for information about the map as a whole. These cartographers typically place such information in an otherwise "blank" region "inside" the map—cartouche, map legend, title, compass rose, bar scale, etc. In particular, some maps contain smaller "sub-maps" in otherwise blank regions—often one at a much smaller scale showing the whole globe and where the whole map fits on that globe, and a few showing "regions of interest" at a larger scale to show details that wouldn't otherwise fit. Occasionally sub-maps use the same scale as the large map—a few maps of the contiguous United States include a sub-map to the same scale for each of the two non-contiguous states.

The design and production of maps is a craft that has developed over thousands of years, from clay tablets to Geographic information systems. As a form of Design, particularly closely related to Graphic design, map making incorporates scientific knowledge about how maps are used, integrated with principles of artistic expression, to create an aesthetically attractive product, carries an aura of authority, and functionally serves a particular purpose for an intended audience.

Designing a map involves bringing together a number of elements and making a large number of decisions. The elements of design fall into several broad topics, each of which has its own theory, its own research agenda, and its own best practices. That said, there are synergistic effects between these elements, meaning that the overall design process is not just working on each element one at a time, but an iterative feedback process of adjusting each to achieve the desired gestalt.

    : The foundation of the map is the plane on which it rests (whether paper or screen), but projections are required to flatten the surface of the earth. All projections distort this surface, but the cartographer can be strategic about how and where distortion occurs. [3] : All maps must be drawn at a smaller scale than reality, requiring that the information included on a map be a very small sample of the wealth of information about a place. Generalization is the process of adjusting the level of detail in geographic information to be appropriate for the scale and purpose of a map, through procedures such as selection, simplification, and classification. : Any map visually represents the location and properties of geographic phenomena using map symbols, graphical depictions composed of several visual variables, such as size, shape, color, and pattern.
  • Composition: As all of the symbols are brought together, their interactions have major effects on map reading, such as grouping and Visual hierarchy. : Text serves a number of purposes on the map, especially aiding the recognition of features, but labels must be designed and positioned well to be effective. [4] : The map image must be placed on the page (whether paper, web, or other media), along with related elements, such as the title, legend, additional maps, text, images, and so on. Each of these elements have their own design considerations, as does their integration, which largely follows the principles of Graphic design.
  • Map type-specific design: Different kinds of maps, especially thematic maps, have their own design needs and best practices.

Maps of the world or large areas are often either 'political' or 'physical'. The most important purpose of the political map is to show territorial borders the purpose of the physical is to show features of geography such as mountains, soil type, or land use including infrastructures such as roads, railroads, and buildings. Topographic maps show elevations and relief with contour lines or shading. Geological maps show not only the physical surface, but characteristics of the underlying rock, fault lines, and subsurface structures.

Electronic maps Edit

From the last quarter of the 20th century, the indispensable tool of the cartographer has been the computer. Much of cartography, especially at the data-gathering survey level, has been subsumed by Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The functionality of maps has been greatly advanced by technology simplifying the superimposition of spatially located variables onto existing geographical maps. Having local information such as rainfall level, distribution of wildlife, or demographic data integrated within the map allows more efficient analysis and better decision making. In the pre-electronic age such superimposition of data led Dr. John Snow to identify the location of an outbreak of cholera. Today, it is used by agencies of humankind, as diverse as wildlife conservationists and militaries around the world.

Even when GIS is not involved, most cartographers now use a variety of computer graphics programs to generate new maps.

Interactive, computerized maps are commercially available, allowing users to zoom in or zoom out (respectively meaning to increase or decrease the scale), sometimes by replacing one map with another of different scale, centered where possible on the same point. In-car global navigation satellite systems are computerized maps with route planning and advice facilities that monitor the user's position with the help of satellites. From the computer scientist's point of view, zooming in entails one or a combination of:

  1. replacing the map by a more detailed one
  2. enlarging the same map without enlarging the pixels, hence showing more detail by removing less information compared to the less detailed version
  3. enlarging the same map with the pixels enlarged (replaced by rectangles of pixels) no additional detail is shown, but, depending on the quality of one's vision, possibly more detail can be seen if a computer display does not show adjacent pixels really separate, but overlapping instead (this does not apply for an LCD, but may apply for a cathode ray tube), then replacing a pixel by a rectangle of pixels does show more detail. A variation of this method is interpolation.
  • Typically (2) applies to a Portable Document Format (PDF) file or other format based on vector graphics. The increase in detail is limited to the information contained in the file: enlargement of a curve may eventually result in a series of standard geometric figures such as straight lines, arcs of circles, or splines.
  • (2) may apply to text and (3) to the outline of a map feature such as a forest or building.
  • (1) may apply to the text as needed (displaying labels for more features), while (2) applies to the rest of the image. Text is not necessarily enlarged when zooming in. Similarly, a road represented by a double line may or may not become wider when one zooms in.
  • The map may also have layers that are partly raster graphics and partly vector graphics. For a single raster graphics image (2) applies until the pixels in the image file correspond to the pixels of the display, thereafter (3) applies.

Climatic maps Edit

The maps that reflect the territorial distribution of climatic conditions based on the results of long-term observations are called climatic maps. These maps can be compiled both for individual climatic features (temperature, precipitation, humidity) and for combinations of them at the earth's surface and in the upper layers of the atmosphere. Climatic maps show climatic features across a large region and permit values of climatic features to be compared in different parts of the region. When generating the map, spatial interpolation can be used to synthesize values where there are no measurements, under the assumption that conditions change smoothly.

Climatic maps generally apply to individual months and the year as a whole, sometimes to the four seasons, to the growing period, and so forth. On maps compiled from the observations of ground meteorological stations, atmospheric pressure is converted to sea level. Air temperature maps are compiled both from the actual values observed on the surface of the earth and from values converted to sea level. The pressure field in the free atmosphere is represented either by maps of the distribution of pressure at different standard altitudes—for example, at every kilometer above sea level—or by maps of baric topography on which altitudes (more precisely geopotentials) of the main isobaric surfaces (for example, 900, 800, and 700 millibars) counted off from sea level are plotted. The temperature, humidity, and wind on aeroclimatic maps may apply either to standard altitudes or to the main isobaric surfaces.

Isolines are drawn on maps of such climatic features as the long-term mean values (of atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, total precipitation, and so forth) to connect points with equal values of the feature in question—for example, isobars for pressure, isotherms for temperature, and isohyets for precipitation. Isoamplitudes are drawn on maps of amplitudes (for example, annual amplitudes of air temperature—that is, the differences between the mean temperatures of the warmest and coldest month). Isanomals are drawn on maps of anomalies (for example, deviations of the mean temperature of each place from the mean temperature of the entire latitudinal zone). Isolines of frequency are drawn on maps showing the frequency of a particular phenomenon (for example, the annual number of days with a thunderstorm or snow cover). Isochrones are drawn on maps showing the dates of onset of a given phenomenon (for example, the first frost and appearance or disappearance of the snow cover) or the date of a particular value of a meteorological element in the course of a year (for example, passing of the mean daily air temperature through zero). Isolines of the mean numerical value of wind velocity or isotachs are drawn on wind maps (charts) the wind resultants and directions of prevailing winds are indicated by arrows of different lengths or arrows with different plumes lines of flow are often drawn. Maps of the zonal and meridional components of wind are frequently compiled for the free atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure and wind are usually combined on climatic maps. Wind roses, curves showing the distribution of other meteorological elements, diagrams of the annual course of elements at individual stations, and the like are also plotted on climatic maps.

Maps of climatic regionalization, that is, division of the earth's surface into climatic zones and regions according to some classification of climates, are a special kind of climatic map.

Climatic maps are often incorporated into climatic atlases of varying geographic ranges (globe, hemispheres, continents, countries, oceans) or included in comprehensive atlases. Besides general climatic maps, applied climatic maps and atlases have great practical value. Aeroclimatic maps, aeroclimatic atlases, and agroclimatic maps are the most numerous.

Non-geographical spatial maps Edit

Maps exist of the Solar System, and other cosmological features such as star maps. In addition maps of other bodies such as the Moon and other planets are technically not geographical maps. Floor maps are also spatial but not necessarily geospatial.

Topological maps Edit

Diagrams such as schematic diagrams and Gantt charts and treemaps display logical relationships between items, rather than geographical relationships. Topological in nature, only the connectivity is significant. The London Underground map and similar subway maps around the world are a common example of these maps.

General-purpose maps Edit

General-purpose maps provide many types of information on one map. Most atlas maps, wall maps, and road maps fall into this category. The following are some features that might be shown on general-purpose maps: bodies of water, roads, railway lines, parks, elevations, towns and cities, political boundaries, latitude and longitude, national and provincial parks. These maps give a broad understanding of the location and features of an area. The reader may gain an understanding of the type of landscape, the location of urban places, and the location of major transportation routes all at once.

List of map types Edit

Some countries required that all published maps represent their national claims regarding border disputes. For example:

  • Within Russia, Google Maps shows Crimea as part of Russia. [5]
  • Both the Republic of India and the People's Republic of China require that all maps show areas subject to the Sino-Indian border dispute in their own favor. [6]

In 2010, the People's Republic of China began requiring that all online maps served from within China be hosted there, making them subject to Chinese laws. [7]